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**Cognizant GenC Aptitude-Based Questions**

**1. Ramu and Shamu started a business by investing Rs. 36,000 and RS. 63,000. Find the share of each, out of the annual profit of Rs. 5500.**

**Ans:** Rs. 2000 and Rs. 3500 respectively

**Explanation:**

**Step 1**: Calculate the total investment

Total Investment = Ramu’s Investment + Shamu’s Investment

Total Investment = Rs. 36,000 + Rs. 63,000

Total Investment = Rs. 99,000

**Step 2**: Find the ratio of their investments

Ramu’s Ratio = Ramu’s Investment / Total Investment

Ramu’s Ratio = Rs. 36,000 / Rs. 99,000

Ramu’s Ratio = 4 / 11

Shamu’s Ratio = Shamu’s Investment / Total Investment

Shamu’s Ratio = Rs. 63,000 / Rs. 99,000

Shamu’s Ratio = 7 / 11

**Step 3**: Calculate their shares of the annual profit

Ramu’s Share = Ramu’s Ratio * Annual Profit

Ramu’s Share = 4 / 11 * Rs. 5,500

Ramu’s Share = Rs. 2,000 (rounded to the nearest rupee)

Shamu’s Share = Shamu’s Ratio * Annual Profit

Shamu’s Share = 7 / 11 * Rs. 5,500

Shamu’s Share = Rs. 3,500 (rounded to the nearest rupee)

So, Ramu’s share of the annual profit is approximately Rs. 2,000, and Shamu’s share is approximately Rs. 3,500.

**2. A train is moving at a speed of 132 kmph. If the length of the train is 110 meters, how long will it take to cross a railway platform 165 m long?**

**Ans: **7.5 s

**Explanation:**

**Step 1**: Convert the speed of the train from km/h to m/s.

Given, speed of the train = 132 kmph

To convert km/h to m/s, we use the conversion: 1 km/h = 1000 m / 3600 s (since 1 hour = 3600 seconds)

Speed of the train in m/s = 132 km/h * (1000 m / 3600 s)

Speed of the train in m/s = 36.67 m/s (rounded to two decimal places)

**Step 2**: Calculate the total distance the train travels while crossing the platform.

The total distance covered by the train while crossing the platform is equal to the length of the train plus the length of the platform.

Total distance = Length of the train + Length of the platform

Total distance = 110 meters + 165 meters

Total distance = 275 meters

**Step 3**: Calculate the time taken to cover the total distance.

Time (t) = Distance / Speed

Time taken to cross the platform = Total distance / Speed of the train

Time taken to cross the platform = 275 meters / 36.67 m/s

Time taken to cross the platform = 7.50 seconds (rounded to two decimal places)

So, it will take 7.50 seconds for the train to cross the railway platform.

**3. The difference between the value of the number increased by 20 % and the value of the number decreased by 25 % is 36. What is the number?**

**Ans: **80

**Explanation**:

Let’s assume the required number as “x.”

**Step 1**: Calculate the value of the number increased by 20%

Value after 20% increase = x + 0.20x

Value after 20% increase = 1.20x

**Step 2**: Calculate the value of the number decreased by 25%

Value after 25% decrease = x – 0.25x

Value after 25% decrease = 0.75x

**Step 3**: Set up the equation based on the given information

The difference between the two values is given as 36. So, we have:

1.20x – 0.75x = 36

**Step 4**: Solve the equation for “x”

Combine like terms:

0.45x = 36

Now, isolate “x” by dividing both sides by 0.45:

x = 36 / 0.45

x = 80

**Step 5**: Check the solution

Let’s verify that the difference between the value increased by 20% and the value decreased by 25% is indeed 36:

Value after 20% increase = 1.20 * 80 = 96

Value after 25% decrease = 0.75 * 80 = 60

Difference = 96 – 60 = 36

Since the difference matches the given information, the number is indeed 80.

**4. 40 % is the passing marks. A student gets 250 marks yet fails by 38 marks. What are the maximum marks?**

**Ans: **720

** Explanation:**

Let’s assume the maximum marks in the exam as “M.”

**Step 1**: Calculate the passing marks (40% of the maximum marks)

Passing Marks = 0.40 * M

**Step 2**: Calculate the marks obtained by the student (250 marks)

Marks Obtained = 250

**Step 3**: Calculate the marks required to pass

Marks Required to Pass = Passing Marks – Marks Obtained

Marks Required to Pass = 0.40 * M – 250

**Step 4**: It is given that the student fails by 38 marks. So, set up the equation:

Marks Required to Pass = 38

**Step 5**: Combine the equations and solve for “M”

0.40 * M – 250 = 38

**Step 6**: Solve for “M”

Add 250 to both sides to isolate 0.40 * M:

0.40 * M = 38 + 250

0.40 * M = 288

Now, divide both sides by 0.40 to find the value of “M”:

M = 288 / 0.40

M = 720

So, the maximum marks in the exam are 720.

**5. The sum of the ages of 5 children born at the intervals of 3 years each is 50 years. What is the age of the youngest child?**

**Ans: **4 years old

** Explanation**:

Let’s represent the age of the youngest child as “x” years.

Since there are 5 children with ages at intervals of 3 years each, we can set up the following equations:

1st child’s age = x

2nd child’s age = x + 3 (3 years older than the youngest)

3rd child’s age = x + 6 (3 years older than the second child)

4th child’s age = x + 9 (3 years older than the third child)

5th child’s age = x + 12 (3 years older than the fourth child)

Now, the sum of their ages is given as 50 years:

x + (x + 3) + (x + 6) + (x + 9) + (x + 12) = 50

Let’s solve for “x”:

5x + 30 = 50

5x = 20

x = 4

Therefore, the age of the youngest child (1st child) is 4 years old.

**Cognizant GenC DSA-Based Questions**

**6. What is a data structure, and how many types are there? Explain**

A data structure is a way of organizing and storing data in a computer’s memory to facilitate efficient operations and manipulations of that data. Data structures provide a means of representing and managing data in a structured and organized manner.

**There are two types of data structures:**

1) Linear data structure

2) Non-linear data structure

**Linear Data Structure**: A data structure that includes data elements arranged sequentially or linearly, where each element is connected to its previous and next nearest elements, is referred to as a linear data structure. Arrays and linked lists are two examples of linear data structures.**Non-Linear Data Structure**: Non-linear data structures are data structures in which data elements are not arranged linearly or sequentially. In a non-linear data structure, we cannot walk through all elements in one pass, as in a linear data structure. Trees and graphs are two examples of non-linear data structures.

**7. What is a linked list? Explain its types. **

A linked list is a linear data structure in which elements are stored as separate nodes, each containing a reference to the next node, forming a chain-like structure that allows efficient insertion and deletion operations.

**There are three types of linked lists: singly linked lists, doubly linked lists, and circular linked lists.**

**Singly Linked List**: In this type of linked list, every node stores the address or reference of the next node in the list, and the last node has the next address or reference as NULL.**Doubly Linked List**: Two references are associated with each node. One of the reference points is to the next node, and one is to the previous node.**Circular Linked List**: A circular linked list is a type of linked list in which all nodes are interconnected to form a circle. There is no NULL node at the end. This type of linked list can take the form of either a singly circular linked list or a doubly circular linked list.

**8. What is a stack, and where can it be used? **

An abstract data type that adheres to the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) rule is a stack. It is a linear data structure in which components are added to and subtracted from the top end.

Stacks are useful for organizing function calls in programming languages, evaluating expressions, backtracking algorithms, and undoing actions in text editors, among other things.

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