Git User Handbook

The Git cheat sheet presented in this DevOps tutorial is designed for those who have an interest in learning file management using Git as a tool. This cheat sheet will be a handy reference not only when you learn Git but when you start working with it too. Don’t worry if you are a beginner and have no idea about how Git works. Intellipaat’s Git cheat sheet will give you a quick reference to the basics that you must know.

Git Cheat Sheet

What is Git?

Git is a DevOps tool that is used as a version-control system for tracking the changes happening in system files and coordinating the work on those files among a group of people. In the software development field, Git is used in source code management and for tracking the changes made in any file.

  • Git is a distributed version control and source code management system with an emphasis on speed.
  • It is a repository used to manage projects, the set of files, as they change over time.
  • Using Git, every code change or commit we make gets updated in the development code of a project.

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GIT Cheat Sheet

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Process Flow

It shows the process flow with components used to perform certain tasks:

  • Plan: It can be created or deleted by itself based on the updates in the source repository.
  • Code: It is the statement written to perform a task in a repository.
  • Shared repository: It is the repository that is shared among several members in order to perform a task.
  • Continuous integration: It helps in updating a repository with the changes made in the code and provides integration with the changes, time to time.
  • Build: It is used to manually build products and dependencies to Git.
  • Configuration management: It is a process of tracking and controlling the changes made in a system.
  • Deploy: Deploy is the process of pushing the code to a remote server.

Process flow

Version Control

Version control is the management of changes made to the code, documents, programs, large sites, and other information. The changes are termed as versions.

A version control system (VCS) is used to perform the following:

  • It allows developers to work simultaneously.
  • VCS does not allow overwriting each other’s changes.
  • It maintains a history of every version.

There are two types of version control systems:

  • Centralized VCS
  • Distributed VCS

Our DevOps tool, Git falls under the category of distributed VCS.

Life Cycle

Life Cycle

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Git and GitHub

Git is a VCS that supports distributed nonlinear workflows by providing data assurance for developing quality software.

Its features are as follows:

  • Distributed: A distributed development of code
  • Compatible: Works with existing systems and protocols
  • Non-linear: Allows the non-linear development of code
  • Branching: Easy to create and merge branches
  • Lightweight: Lossless compression
  • Speed: Faster than the remote repository
  • Open-source: A free tool and hence economical
  • Reliable: Not viable to any loss of data upon crashes
  • Secure: Uses SHA1 and checksum

Git Operations and Commands

Git Configuration

  • For the initial configuration of username, email, and code highlighting (optional):
$git config -- global user.name”firstname lastname”
$git config -- global user.email” [email protected]”
$git config -- global color.ui true (enables code highlights)
$git config --list

Initializing Git

  • To initialize:
$git init
  • To know the status:
$git status

Adding and Removing Files

  • To add a file:
$git add<filename>
  • To add multiple files:
$git add<filename> <2nd filename> <3rd filename>
  • To add all the updated files:
$git add --all ( use -A instead of -all too )
  • To remove files:
$git rm -r <filename>

Committing Changes

  • To pass a message, use ‘commit’ with ‘-m’:
$git commit -m “body_of_message”
  • To amend the last commit or the last message:
$git commit --amend -m “new_message”

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Pushing and Pulling

Here, a remote repository typically represents a remote server or a Git server.

  • To create a remote repository via GitHub, go to:
  • To add a link:
$git remote add origin<link>
  • To push files:
$git push -u origin master
  • To clone files:
$git clone <clone>

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Branching and Merging

Command Description
git branch To list branches
git branch -a To list all the branches
git branch [branch name] To create a new branch
git branch -d [branch name] To delete a branch
git push origin –delete [branchName] To delete a remote branch
git checkout -b [branch name] To create a new branch and switch to it
git checkout -b [branch name] origin/[branch name] To clone a remote branch and switch to it
git checkout [branch name] To switch to a branch
git checkout – To switch to the branch last checked out
git checkout — [file-name.txt] To discard the changes made to a file
git merge [branch name] To merge a branch into an active branch
git stash To stash the changes in a dirty working directory
git stash clear To remove all the stashed entries

Sharing and Updating Projects

Command Description
git push origin [branch name] To push a branch to a remote repository
git push -u origin [branch name] To push the changes made to a remote repository (-u remembers the branch for the next use)
git push origin –delete [branch name] To delete a remote branch
git pull To update a local repository to the newest commit
git pull origin [branch name] To pull the changes from a remote repository
git remote add origin ssh://[email protected]/[username]/[repository-name].git To add a remote repository
git remote set-url origin ssh://[email protected]/[username]/[repository-name].git To set a repository’s origin branch to SSH

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Inspection and Comparison

Command Description
git log To view the changes made
View changes To view changes (in detail)
git diff [source branch] [target branch} To preview changes before merging

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Big Data Course 2021-11-27 2021-11-28
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