**What are Matrices?**

Matrices are the R objects wherein the elements are organized in a 2-D rectangular shape. In a matrix, it contains elements of the same atomic types.

The matrix function is denoted as a matrix().

**Syntax**

matrix(data, nrow, ncol, byrow, dimnames)

**data**is the parameter of input,**nrow**is number of rows and**ncol**is the number of columns to be created;**byrow**has TRUE or FALSE as its logical values, and dimname is the rows or columns name.

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**Accessing Elements of a matrix**

Any row or column element can be accessed by using the column and row index.

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**Example:**

#Defining the column and row names rn = c("r1", "r2", "r3", r4") cn = c("c1", "c2", "c3") #Creating the matrix A <- matrix(c(1:12), nrow = 4, byrow = TRUE, dimnames= list(rn, cn)) #Accessing 2nd row, 3rd column element print(A[2,3]) #Accessing elements of 4th column print(A[ ,4])

**Output:**

[1] 6 row1 row2 row3 row4 3 6 9 12

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**Matrix Computations**

Different types of mathematical operations such as matrix addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be performed on the matrices using R Programming operators.