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Overview of R Programming

R is one of the most demanding programming languages in the current world which is widely used by data scientists of most well-known organizations like Google, Facebook, Airbnb etc. for data analysis and future predictions.

R Programming for Beginners Video

To perform Data analysis with R it involves a series of steps like:

  • Program: R is a simple, effective and accessible programming tool
  • Transform: There are collection of libraries which are specifically designed for data science in R
  • Discover: It is very easy to explore the data, improve hypothesis and analyse them in R
  • Model: There are wide array of tools provided by R to capture the right model for data
  • Communicate: It is easy to integrate codes, graphs, charts and outputs to a report with R programming

In this R Programming tutorial, we will cover Introduction to R, Installation for Windows and Linux or UNIX, Basic Syntax of R language, RStudio,  Data Types and Variables, Graphics, Operators, Decision Making and Loops, Functions, StringsVectors, Lists, Matrices, Arrays, Factors, Data Frames, Packages, use cases of R, practical knowledge and more.

Here we have the list of topics if you want to jump right into a specific one:

Why R Programming is popular for Statistical Computing and Graphics?

Known as one of the most widely accepted programming language for statistical analysis and software environment, R programming has following unique features:

  • R is open source and free
  • R runs on all platforms
  • Able to connect to relational databases like MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, etc.
  • Functions and codes are stored in a package inside a library
  • Data can be reshaped to match the required format.

R vs. Python

Python is one of the trending high-level general-purpose programming language. Though it is still in its nascent stage, but has gained immense popularity among the programmers. However there are certain situations when R outperforms Python. Read below to know more:

R Python
Preferred by statisticians and mathematiciansFavored by computer scientists and engineers
Operates on filtered and specific datasetsOperates on jumbled and raw datasets
Specific for data scienceGeneral-purpose programming language

Table of Content


What is R Programming?

R is a programming language and by itself, a software environment for statistical analysis and graphic representation. R is freely available GNU General Public License and pre-compiled binary version for operating systems like UNIX/Linux, Windows, and Mac. This programming language is called as R, because of the two authors primary name starts with R (Robert Gentleman Read More

R and RStudio – Installation

Steps to Install R and RStudio

Follow these procedures to  install R and RStudio in your system. Step 1 – Install R Download the R installer from Run the installer. Default settings are fine. If you do not have admin rights on your laptop, then ask you local IT support. In that case, it is important that you also ask Read More

Installation Procedure

Downloading and Installing R

Download R (binary version) by choosing your country over here --> Download (latest version) and then choose from various OS such as Windows, Linux, Mac which you are using.  For Windows    1. Run the downloaded or saved file from the computer   2. Click on Run 3. Select the language which you want to use... Read More

R Studio

What is R Studio?

R Studio is an integrated developed environment (IDE) designed for R. It comes in two versions, i.e., R Studio Desktop and R Studio Server. R Studio Desktop - Here the programs are executed as local applications. R Studio Server - Enables access to the R Studio through a web browser while working on remote server. Both Read More

Basic Syntax, Data Types and Variables

Hello world in R

In this chapter we will learn to write the simplest program of writing "Hello World" in R programming language. In this programme we will use function print() to display this string. > # We can use the print() function print("Hello World!") [1] "Hello World!" > # Quotes can be suppressed in the output print("Hello World!", quote Read More

R Programming Reserved Words

Reserved words in R

Reserved words are the set of words that have special meaning and function. These keywords cannot be written as identifiers. if else repeat while function for in next break TRUE FALSE NULL Inf NaN NA NA_integer_ NA_real_ NA_complex_ NA_character_ … Following table highlights the reserved words of R programming - 1 If,else,repeat,while,function,for,in,next,break, Used in loops, conditions, Read More


Operators in R Programming

There are 4 types of operators in R Programming - Arithmetic Operators - These are the operators that perform arithmetic operations. Addition + Subtraction - Multiplication * Division / Exponent ^ Modulus %% Integer division %/% Relational Operators - These operators compare two values. Less than < Greater than > Less than or equal to <= Read More

Decision Making and Loops

Decision making in R

R Programming supports decision-making like any other programming language with the help of following statements : if statement - The if statement holds a logical or numeric value and executes the codes if it is TRUE. If the logical value is FALSE, nothing happens. Syntax of if statement - if (test_expression) { statement } For example, Read More


What are Functions in R Programming?

Functions are the blocks of code that is written to perform particular job. R programming supports a huge number of in-built functions as well as user-defined ones. In order to create a function in R programming 'function' keyword is used. Defining a Function The syntax for writing functions is- function_name <- function (argu_1, argu_2, Read More


What are Strings?

The string is any value written either in a single quote or double quote. Internally R takes single quotes as double quotes only. Valid Strings The quotes at the beginning and end of a string should be both single or double quote and cannot be mixed. Example: x <- "This is a valid proper ' string" print(x) Read More


What are Vectors?

Vectors are the basic R data objects and there are 6 types of the atomic vectors. They can be Integer, Logical, Double, Complex, Character and Raw Creation of Vector There are two types of vector creation: Single Element Vector Multiple Elements Vector Single Element Vector Whenever 1 word is written in R, it becomes a vector of Read More


What are Lists?

Lists are the R objects with numbers, strings, vectors and another list or matrix inside it.  Creating  a List Example to create a list containing numbers, strings, vectors and logical values. #creating a list list_info <- list("Blue", "Yellow", c(12, 13, 14), TRUE, 13.12, 103.4) print(list_info) Output: [[1]] [1] "Blue" [[2]] [1] "Yellow" [[3]] [1] 12 13 14 Read More


What are Matrices?

Matrices are the R objects wherein the elements are organized in a 2-D rectangular shape. In a matrix it contains elements of same atomic types. Matrix function is denoted as matrix(). Syntax matrix(data, nrow, ncol, byrow, dimnames) data is the parameter of input, nrow is number of rows and ncol is number of columns to be created; Read More

Data Structures in R Programming

Data Structures in R programming

Data structure can be defined as the specific form of organizing and storing the data. R programming supports five basic types of data structure namely vector, matrix, list, data frame and factor. This chapter will discuss these data structures and the way to write these in R Programming. Vector - This data structures contain similar Read More

Data Structures with R Cheat Sheet

R Data Structures User Handbook

Data Structures are used to organize and store the data in the computer. R programming is a language that supports particular types of Data Structures. Most of the industries use Data Structures and write them in particular programming language such as R. This Data Structures in R cheat sheet will help you with the basic concepts Read More


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