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Kubernetes User Handbook

This Kubernetes cheat sheet is prepared by our experts keeping in mind those learners who have started learning Kubernetes as a tool. This cheat sheet will be a handy reference for them when they start implementing what they have learned in real-life problems. In this Kubernetes cheat sheet, you get a quick reference to all the basics that you must know about Kubernetes.

Watch this video on Kubernetes Tutorial for Beginners:

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You can also download the printable PDF of this Kubernetes cheat sheet

Kubernetes Cheat Sheet

What is Kubernetes?

Kubernetes is an open-source platform used to automate deployment and to scale containers across clusters of hosts providing container-centric infrastructure.

  • It is a container orchestrator.
  • It can run a Linux container.
    • Launches a container
    • Maintains and monitors the container site
    • Performs container-oriented networking

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Watch this video on Kubernetes Tutorial for Beginners:

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The below image illustrates the architecture of Kubernetes. Let’s have a look at it.


Key Concepts

Now, let’s discuss the key points of this architecture.

  • Pod: Group of containers
  • Label: Used to identify pods
  • Kubelet: Container agents, responsible for maintaining the set of pods
  • Proxy: The load balancer for pods, helping in distributing tasks across them
  • Etcd: A metadata service
  • CAdvisor: Used for monitoring resource usage and performance
  • Replication controller: Manages pod replication
  • Scheduler: Used for pod scheduling in worker nodes
  • API server: Kubernetes API server

Now, let’s understand the roles master and worker nodes play in the Kubernetes architecture.

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Master Node

  • It is responsible for maintaining the desired state of the cluster we are working on.
  • The term ‘master‘ indicates a set of processes that are used to manage a cluster.
  • It contains Kubelet service info, API, scheduler, replication controller, and Kubernetes master.


Worker Nodes/Minions

Also called a ‘minion,’ a worker node contains the services necessary to run the pods that are managed by the master.

  • Services it provides are Container Runtime, Kubelet, Kube-proxy, etc.
  • It contains Kubelet, cAdvisor, Services, Pods, and Containers.

Worker node
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Moving forward, let’s check out the important commands used in Kubernetes.

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Kubectl Commands

For Pods and Container Introspection

Command Function
Kubectl get pods Lists all current pods
Kubectl describe pod<name> Describes pod names
Kubectl get rc Lists all replication controllers
Kubectl get rc –namespace=”namespace” Lists replication controllers in a namespace
Kubectl describe rc <name> Shows the replication controller name
Kubectl get cvc Lists services
Kubectl describe svc<name> Shows a service name
Kubectl delete pod<name> Deletes a pod
Kubectl get nodes -w Watches nodes continuously

For Debugging

Function Command
To execute the command on service by selecting a container Kubectl exec<service><commands>[-c< $container>]
To get logs from the service for a container Kubectl logs -f<name>>[-c< $container>]
To watch kubelet logs Watch -n 2 cat/var/log/kublet.log
To show metrics for a node Kubectl top node
To show metrics for a pod Kubectl top pod

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For Cluster Introspection

Function Command
To get version-related information Kubectl version
To get cluster-related information Kubectl cluster-info
To get configuration details Kubectl config g view
To get information about a node Kubectl describe node<node>

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Some of the common objects used in Kubernetes are mentioned in the below table:

All clusterrolebindings clusterroles
cm= conf gmaps controllerrevisions crd=custom resource definition
Cronjobs cs=component statuses csr= certificate signing requests
Deploy=deployments ds= daemon sets ep=end points
ev= events hpa= horizontal pod autoscaling ing= ingress
jobs limits=limit ranges Netpol- network policies
No = nodes ns= namespaces pdb= pod distribution budgets
po= pods Pod preset Pod templates
Psp= pod security policies Pv= persistent volumes pvc= persistent volume claims
quota= resource quotas rc= replication controllers Role bindings
roles rs= replica sets sa= service accounts
sc= storage classes secrets sts= stateful sets

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Other Quick Commands

Additionally, we do have some quick commands that are often very useful:

Function Command
To launch a pod with a name and an image Kubectl run<name> — image=<image-name>
To create a service described in <manifest.yaml> Kubectl create -f <manifest.yaml>
To scale the replication counter to count the number of instances Kubectl scale –replicas=<count>rc<name>
To map the external port to the internal replication port Expose rc<name> –port=<external>–target-port=<internal>
To stop all pods in <n> Kubectl drain<n>– delete-local-data–force–ignore-daemonset
To create a namespace Kubectl create namespace <namespace>
To allow the master node to run pods Kubectltaintnodes –

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Features of Kubernetes

  • Automated scheduling: It provides an advanced scheduler that helps launch containers on cluster nodes.
  • Self-healing: Rescheduling, replacing, and restarting dead containers are possible.
  • Automated rollouts and rollbacks: It supports rollback for systems in the case of failures and enables rollout and rollback for the desired state.
  • Horizontal scaling: It can be scaled up and down as required and can be automated with respect to CPU usage.
  • Service discovery and load balancing: It uses a unique IP and DNS name for containers that help in identifying them.

Download a Printable PDF of the Cheat Sheet

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If you decide to enroll in this certification program, you are making the right step toward your DevOps career as, in this course, you will not only learn and implement Kubernetes with step-by-step guidance and support from us but you will get to learn other important topics in DevOps such as Docker, Chef, Git/GitHub, Ansible, Jenkins, Puppet, Selenium, Nagios, and much more.

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