How to Setup Hadoop Multi-Node Cluster in Ubuntu, Centos, Windows

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Setting Up A Hadoop Multi-Node Cluster

Installing Java

First, the Installation of java is important to set up a Multi-node cluster.

Syntax of java version command

$ java -version

Following output is presented.

java version "1.7.0_71"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_71-b13)
Java HotSpot(TM) Client VM (build 25.0-b02, mixed mode)


Creating User Account

System user account on both master and slave systems should be created to use the Hadoop installation.

# useradd hadoop 
# passwd hadoop

Mapping the nodes

hosts file should be edited in /etc/ folder on all nodes and IP address of each system followed by their host names must be specified.

# vi /etc/hosts

Enter the following lines in the /etc/hosts file. hadoop-master hadoop-slave-1 hadoop-slave-2

Configuring Key Based Login

Ssh should be setup in each node such that they can converse with one another without any prompt for a password.

# su hadoop 
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
$ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ tutorialspoint@hadoop-master
$ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ hadoop_tp1@hadoop-slave-1
$ ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ hadoop_tp2@hadoop-slave-2
$ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
$ exit

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Installing Hadoop

Hadoop should be downloaded to the master server.

# mkdir /opt/hadoop
# cd /opt/hadoop/
# wget 
# tar -xzf hadoop-1.2.0.tar.gz 
# mv hadoop-1.2.0 hadoop 
# chown -R hadoop /opt/hadoop 
# cd /opt/hadoop/hadoop/

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Configuring Hadoop

Hadoop server must be configured

core-site.xml should be edited.


hdfs-site.xml file should be edited.


mapred-site.xml file should be edited.


JAVA_HOME, HADOOP_CONF_DIR, and HADOOP_OPTS should be edited. 

export JAVA_HOME=/opt/jdk1.7.0_17 
export HADOOP_CONF_DIR=/opt/hadoop/hadoop/conf 

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Installing Hadoop on Slave Servers

Hadoop should be installed on all the slave servers

# su hadoop 
$ cd /opt/hadoop 
$ scp -r hadoop hadoop-slave-1:/opt/hadoop
$ scp -r hadoop hadoop-slave-2:/opt/hadoop

Configuring Hadoop on Master Server

The master server should be configured

# su hadoop 
$ cd /opt/hadoop/hadoop

Master Node Configuration

$ vi etc/hadoop/masters  

Slave Node Configuration

$ vi etc/hadoop/slaves 

Name Node format on Hadoop Master

# su hadoop 
$ cd /opt/hadoop/hadoop 
$ bin/hadoop namenode –format
11/10/14 10:58:07 INFO namenode.NameNode: STARTUP_MSG:
STARTUP_MSG: Starting NameNode
STARTUP_MSG: host = hadoop-master/
STARTUP_MSG: args = [-format]
STARTUP_MSG: version = 1.2.0
STARTUP_MSG: build = -r 1479473; compiled by 'hortonfo' on Mon May 6 06:59:37 UTC 2013
STARTUP_MSG: java = 1.7.0_71
11/10/14 10:58:08 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map BlocksMap editlog=/opt/hadoop/hadoop/dfs/name/current/edits
11/10/14 10:58:08 INFO common.Storage: Storage directory /opt/hadoop/hadoop/dfs/name has been successfully formatted.
11/10/14 10:58:08 INFO namenode.NameNode: SHUTDOWN_MSG: /************************************************************
SHUTDOWN_MSG: Shutting down NameNode at hadoop-master/

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Hadoop Services

Starting Hadoop services on the Hadoop-Master.

$ cd $HADOOP_HOME/sbin 

Addition of a New DataNode in the Hadoop Cluster


Add new nodes to an existing Hadoop cluster with some suitable network configuration. suppose the following network configuration.

For New node Configuration:

IP address :
netmask : 
hostname :

Adding a User and SSH Access

Add a User

“hadoop” user must be added and password of Hadoop user can be set to anything one wants.

useradd hadoop
passwd hadoop


To be executed on master

mkdir -p $HOME/.ssh
chmod 700 $HOME/.ssh 
ssh-keygen -t rsa -P '' -f $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa 
cat $HOME/.ssh/ >> $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys
chmod 644 $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys 
Copy the public key to new slave node in hadoop user $HOME directory 
scp $HOME/.ssh/ [email protected]:/home/hadoop/

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To be executed on slaves

su hadoop ssh -X [email protected]

Content of public key must be copied into file “$HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys” and then the permission for the same must be changed.

cd $HOME 
mkdir -p $HOME/.ssh
chmod 700 $HOME/.ssh  
cat >>$HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys
chmod 644 $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys

 ssh login must be changed from the master machine. The possibility of ssh to the new node without a password from the master must be verified.

ssh [email protected] or hadoop@slave3 

Set Hostname of New Node
Hostname is set in file /etc/sysconfig/network

On new slave3 machine 

The machine must be restarted or hostname command should be run to a new machine with the respective hostname to make changes effective.
On slave3 node machine:
/etc/hosts must be updated on all machines of the cluster slave3

 ping the machine with hostnames to check whether it is resolving to IP.


Start the DataNode on New Node
Datanode daemon should be started manually using $HADOOP_HOME/bin/ script. Master(NameNode) should join the cluster after being automatically contacted. A new node should be added to the conf/slaves file in the master server. A new node will be recognized by script-based commands.

Login to new node

su hadoop or ssh -X [email protected]

HDFS is started on a newly added slave node

./bin/ start datanode

jps command output must be checked on a new node.

$ jps 
7141 DataNode 
10312 Jps

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Removing a DataNode

Node can be removed from a cluster as it is running, without any data loss. A decommissioning feature is made available by HDFS which ensures that removing a node is performed securely.
Step 1
Login to master machine user where Hadoop is installed.

$ su hadoop

Step 2
Before starting the cluster an exclude file must be configured. A key named dfs.hosts.exclude should be added to our $HADOOP_HOME/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xmlfile.
NameNode’s local file system which contains a list of machines that are not permitted to connect to HDFS receives the full path by this key and the value associated with it.

<name>dfs.hosts.exclude</name><value>/home/hadoop/hadoop-1.2.1/hdfs_exclude.txt</value><description>>DFS exclude</description>

Step 3
Hosts to decommission are determined.
Additions should be made to file recognized by the hdfs_exclude.txt for every machine to be decommissioned which will prevent them from connecting to the NameNode.

Step 4
Force configuration reload.
“$HADOOP_HOME/bin/hadoop dfsadmin -refreshNodes” should be run

$ $HADOOP_HOME/bin/hadoop dfsadmin -refreshNodes

NameNode will be forced to re-read its configuration, this is inclusive of the newly updated ‘excludes’ file. Nodes will be decommissioned over a period of time, allowing time for each node’s blocks to be replicated onto machines that are scheduled to remain active.
jps command output should be checked on DataNode process will shut down automatically.
Step 5
Shutdown nodes.
The decommissioned hardware can be carefully shut down for maintenance after the decommission process has been finished.

$ $HADOOP_HOME/bin/hadoop dfsadmin -report

Step 6
Excludes are edited again and once the machines have been decommissioned, they can be removed from the ‘excludes’ file. “$HADOOP_HOME/bin/hadoop dfsadmin -refreshNodes” will read the excluded file back into the NameNode; DataNodes will rejoin the cluster after the maintenance has been completed, or if additional capacity is needed in the cluster again.
To run/shutdown tasktracker

$ $HADOOP_HOME/bin/ stop tasktracker
$ $HADOOP_HOME/bin/ start tasktracker

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