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Kubernetes User Handbook

This Kubernetes cheat sheet is designed for the one who has interested and learning about the file management and using Kubernetes as a tool, then this sheet will be a handy reference sheet. Don’t worry if you are a beginner and have no idea about how Kubernetes works, this Kubernetes cheat sheet will give you a quick reference of the basics that you must know to get started.

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You can also download the printable PDF of Kubernetes Cheat Sheet.

Kubernetes Cheat Sheet

What is Kubernetes?

Kubernetes is an open source platform used in order to automate the deployment and to scale the containers across the clusters of hosts providing container centric infrastructure.

  • It is a container orchestrator
  • It can run Linux container:
    • Launch container.
    • Maintain and monitor container site.
    • Performs container-oriented networking.

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Architecture/interaction

ArchitectureKey concepts

Now let’s discuss the key points of this architecture.

  • Pod: These are the group of containers.
  • Labels: These are used to identify the pods.
  • Kubelet: They are container agents, responsible for maintaining the set of pods.
  • Proxy: They are the Load balancer for pods, helping in distributing tasks across the pods.
  • Etcd: A Metadata service.
  • Cadvisor: For resource usage and performance stats.
  • Replication controller: It manages pod replication.
  • Scheduler: Used for pod scheduling in worker nodes.
  • API server: Kubernetes API server.

Now let’s understand the role Master and Node play in the Kubernetes Architecture.

Master

  • It is responsible for maintaining the desired state for the cluster you are working on.
  • “Master” indicates a set of processes that are used to manage the cluster.
  • It contains service info, API, scheduler, replication controllers, and master.

Master

Worker node/ Minions

Also called as minion, it contains the services necessary to run the pods that are managed by the master.

  • Some services include: Container Runtime, Kubelet, Kube-proxy.
  • Contains: Kubelet, cAdvisor, Services, Pods & Containers.

Worker node

Moving forward, let’s check these important commands.

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Kubectl Command list

  • Pods and container introspection

COMMANDS FUNCTION
Kubectl get pods Lists all current pods
Kubectl describe pod<name> Describes the pod names
Kubectl get rc List all replication controllers
Kubectl get rc –namespace=”namespace” Lists replication controllers in namespace
Kubectl describe rc <name> Shows the replication controller name
Kubectl get cvc Lists the services
Kubectl describe svc<name> Shows the service name
Kubectl delete pod<name> Deletes the pod
Kubectl get nodes -w Watch nodes continuously
  • Debugging

FUNCTION COMMAND
Execute command on service by selecting container. Kubectl exec<service><commands>[-c< $container>]
Get logs from service for a container Kubectl logs -f<name>>[-c< $container>]
Watch the kubelet logs Watch -n 2 cat/var/log/kublet.log
Show metrics for node Kubectl top node
Show metrics for pods Kubectl top pod
  • Cluster Introspection

FUNCTION COMMAND
Get version information Kubectl version
Get cluster information Kubectl cluster-info
Get the configuration Kubectl config g view
Output info about a node Kubectl describe node<node>
  • Objects

Some common objects used:

All clusterrolebindings clusterroles
cm= conf gmaps controllerrevisions crd=custom resource definition
Cronjobs cs=component statuses csr= certificate signing requests
Deploy=deployments ds= daemon sets ep=end points
ev= events hpa= horizontal pod autoscaling ing= ingress
jobs limits=limit ranges Netpol- network policies
No = nodes ns= namespaces pdb= pod distribution budgets
po= pods Pod preset Pod templates
Psp= pod security policies Pv= persistent volumes pvc= persistent volume claims
quota= resource quotas rc= replication controllers Role bindings
roles rs= replica sets sa= service accounts
sc= storage classes secrets sts= stateful sets
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Other Quick commands:

Additionally, we do have some quick commands that are used often:

FUNCTION COMMANDS
Launch a pod with a name an image Kubectl run<name> — image=<image-name>
Create a service described in <manifest.yaml> Kubectl create -f <manifest.yaml>
Scale replication counter to count the number of instances Kubectl scale –replicas=<count>rc<name>
Map external port to internal replication port Expose rc<name> –port=<external>–target-port=<internal>
To stop all pod in <n> Kubectl drain<n>– delete-local-data–force–ignore-daemonset
To create namespace Kubectl create namespace <namespace>
Allow master nodes to run pods Kubectltaintnodes –all-node-role.kuernetes.io/master-

Features

  • Automated scheduling: It provides an advanced scheduler that helps launch container on cluster nodes.
  • Self-healing: Reschedule, replace and restart the dead containers.
  • Automated rollouts and rollbacks: It support rollback for systems in case of a failure, enables rollout and rollback for the desired state.
  • Horizontal scaling: It can scale up and down the app as per required, also it can be automated with respect to the CPU usage.
  • Service discovery and load balancing: It uses unique IP and DNS name to containers which helps in identify them across the different containers.

Download a Printable PDF of this Cheat Sheet

We have covered all the basics of Kubernetes in this cheat sheet. If you want to start learning DevOps in depth then check out the DevOps Certification by Intellipaat.

Not only will you get to learn and implement Kubernetes with a step by step guidance and support from us, but you will also get to learn other important topics in DevOps such as Docker, Chef, Git/GitHub, Ansible, Jenkins, Puppet, Selenium, Nagios and many more. You will also get 24*7 technical support to help you with any and all your queries, from the experts in the respective technologies here at intellipaat throughout the certification period. So, why wait? Check out the training program and enroll today!

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