ABAP or Advanced Business Application Programming is a coding language which is used for the development and management of SAP application programs including Reports, Module Pool Programming, Interfaces, Forms, Data Conversions, User Exits, and BADIs. An event-driven programming language, SAP ABAP shares a lot with COBOL and is therefore quite handy to use when it comes to developing SAP R/3 applications.
ABAP Data Dictionary is nothing but a regular dictionary which is leveraged to describe the logical structures of objects that are used in application development and showing the underlying relational databases in tables.
BDC or Batch Data Communications programming is an automatic procedure which is generally used to ingest volumetric and external data into SAP systems and applications. A ‘Queue File’ serves as the central component of transfers in BDC programming. This file receives data through batch input programs that are associated together as sessions.
|Pooled Tables||Transparent Tables|
|Pooled tables pertain to many-to-one relationships with tables in a database.|
These tables are stored at the database level.
|Transparent tables pertain to one-to-one relationships with tables in a database.|
Structure of these tables correspond to single database fields.
A data class is basically a class that contains only fields and crude methods for accessing other classes. A container for data which is used by other classes, Data Classes can be classified into four types depending on the type of data they contain:
- Master Data: Data stored in here does not change often.
- Transaction Data: Data is subjected to changes depending on requirements.
- Organization Data: Data is customized and entered only when the system is configured.
- System Data: Data is used by the SAP R/3 system itself.
SAP scripts are nothing but word processing tools. Therefore, functions in SAP scripts pertain to standard texts and layout sets. These layouts have several components, which are:
- Windows and Pages
- Character Formats
- Paragraph Formats
ALV or Application List Viewer enhances the output of reports in SAP systems. This kind of programming is done to improve the functionality, readability, and modularity of report outputs. Also, ALV programming revamps the process of arranging columns in a report output.
|Stands for Advanced Business Application Programming|
Used to develop traditional programs in SAP R/3
|Stands for Object-Oriented Advanced Business Application Programming|
Used to develop BSP/PCUI applications and other applications that require the derivation of OOP concepts. These applications leverage OOPs features like BADI and Smart Forms
There are two types of ABAP/4 editors, and they can be differentiated in terms of their use cases and functionalities:
- SE38: To create programs, view online reports, and develop objects
- SE80: To create packages, function groups, module pools, classes, programs, and BSP applications, including the use cases of the SE38 editor
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There are several types of objects that are used in the SAP Data Dictionary space. These are:
- Data Element
- Type Groups
- Search Helps/Math Code Objects
- Lock Objects
- Table Types
Modularization techniques are predominantly used to remove redundancy. If a program contains same or similar blocks and processes, similar types of functions multiple times, modularization techniques can be leveraged to make the overall program readable and structurally improved. Execution time of programs is also improved. Modularized programs are relatively easy to maintain and update.
|Database Index||Match Code|
|Database Index contains fields from only one table.||Match Code Objects can be built on cluster tables, transparent tables, and pooled tables.|
A standard SAP UI technology, Web Dynpro enables users to develop web applications by leveraging graphical tools and such development environments that are integrated with the ABAP workbench. This reduces the effort in implementation and, subsequently, revamps the process of maintaining components in ABAP workbench.
In Web Dynpro, events can be created to enable communication between controllers. With this, one controller can be allowed to trigger events in other controllers. All events created in component controllers are available in respective components.
For Web Dynpro applications, URL is automatically generated. Users can find the URL in the property tab of an application. However, the structure of URLs may vary. There are two types:
- SAP namespace
- Custom namespace
SAP List viewer is mostly used to add ALV components and provide flexible environments for display lists and tabular structures. A standard output of SAP List Viewer consists of a header, a tool bar, and an output table. Users can change settings to add column displays, aggregations, sorting options, etc.
All Web Dynpro applications are based on MVC models. MVC stands for:
- Model: Allows access to back-end data in Web Dynpro applications
- View: Ensures the representation of data in web browsers
- Controller: Controls communication between model and view. Controller mostly takes input from users, receives processed data from model, and displays the same in a web browser
SAP Smart Forms is a tool which is leveraged to print and send documents. This tool streamlines the processes of developing forms, PDF files, emails, and documents. It provides an inherent interface to build and maintain the layout and logic of a form.
Users can modify forms by using simple graphical tools instead of programming tools.
A reusable section of code, a subroutine is a modularization unit within ABAP programs where functions are encapsulated in the form of their source code. A part of a program can be paged out to a subroutine for getting a better overview of the main program.
If users wish to restrict the communication of a program with other programs to only reading and updating, they can opt for lock mechanisms. Also, this can be used to prevent programs from reading data.
Lock requests are first generated by programs. Users can use the T-code ‘SE11’ to create lock objects.