Automation testing is the process of executing tests within software development and quality assurance workflows using automatic software tools and scripts. This practice involves the creation of automated scripts or test cases that can run without manual effort. The goal of test automation is to enhance testing efficiency and effectiveness by minimizing human errors, saving time, and enhancing test coverage.
Top Automation Testing Interview Questions:
Q1. What do you understand about automation?
Q2. What is automation testing?
Q3. How is automated testing different from manual testing?
Q4. What are the general types of automation testing?
Q5. What are the steps in the automated testing process?
Q6. How is automated testing beneficial?
Q7. What is the meaning of the test script?
Q8. Can we completely rely on automation testing?
Q9. Which test cases should be automated?
Q10. When should we automate a test?
These Automation testing interview questions are broadly divided into major categories such as:
1. Basic Automation Testing Interview Questions
2. Intermediate Automation Testing Interview Questions
3. Advanced Automation Testing Interview Questions
Basic Automation Testing Interview Questions for Freshers
1. What do you understand about automation?
Automation is the process of utilizing technology, software, robotics, or other processes to accomplish results with minimal or no human intervention.
2. What is automation testing?
Automation testing refers to the process of using tools and software to perform tests on a software application or system. We create scripts and test cases to automate the repetitive and time-consuming tasks involved in software testing. Automation testing improves efficiency, speeds up the testing process, and ensures the reliability of software applications.
3. How is automated testing different from manual testing?
Automated and manual testing differ from each other in the following ways:
|Faster than manual testing
|Time-consuming because it requires human effort
|Expensive to install initially
|Relatively less initial investment
|Reliable because it produces accurate results
|The possibility of human errors reduces reliability
|Uses Data Driven, Keyword Driven, and Hybrid Frameworks to accelerate the process of automation
|Doesn’t have frameworks but uses guidelines, checklists, and strict processes.
|Easier and faster bug detection
|Relatively slower bug detection
4. What are the general types of automation testing?
There are various types of testing, and the choice depends on specific needs. The types are:
- Unit testing: Test individual units or components of software to ensure they function correctly on their own.
- Integration testing: Different software components are integrated and tested as a group.
- Graphical User testing: Testing the GUI or the features of the software that users interact with.
- Functional testing: Each function of the software is tested to ensure that its output is aligned with the end user’s expectations.
- Smoke testing: To check whether the new software is ready for the next testing phase.
- Regression testing: Testing the sections of code that have been modified to make sure that no new errors have been introduced into the software as a result of the changes made.
5. What are the steps in the automated testing process?
The steps involved in automated testing are:
- Choosing the suitable automation testing tool
- Developing the automated testing framework
- Creating a plan for the execution of scripts
- Writing the scripts and executing
- Reporting and script maintenance
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6. How is automated testing beneficial?
Automated testing is beneficial as it leads to:
- Cost Efficiency
- Time reduction
- Reduced errors
- Easier bug detection
- Wider test coverage
7. What is the meaning of the test script?
A test script is a written set of instructions that describes how to test a program or application. It lists the steps needed to automatically run test cases and verify if features are working as expected. Test scripts also help in test automation by repeating tests consistently.
8. Can we completely rely on automation testing?
Depending completely on automation testing may lead to gaps where unexpected issues could arise. Manual testers are aware of real-world usage and investigate scenarios that automated scripts might not address.
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9. Which test cases should be automated?
The test cases that should be automated include:
- Unit tests
- API tests
- UI tests
- Integration tests
10. When should we automate a test?
We should go for automation testing when we have
- Test cases that demand time when executed manually.
- Test cases that will be repeated multiple times.
- Test cases associated with stable, unchanging requirements.
- Test cases that frequently result in failure due to human error.
11. When should we avoid automating a test?
We should not use automation testing in the following cases:
- The software or functionality being tested undergoes frequent changes, requiring regular updates to automated tests to maintain relevance. As a result, tests may become outdated and lose their effectiveness.
- Exploratory testing is unsuitable for automation since a human tester can explore software more comprehensively than a computer.
- Automated tests will not detect any UI flaws unless specifically programmed to do so.
12. Explain some good automation practices.
Some good automation practices are as follows:
- Deciding which tests should undergo automation.
- Selecting the most suitable testing framework or tool for the project.
- Conducting tests on real devices to ensure accurate simulations of user experiences.
- Maintaining detailed records for improved debugging and issue resolution.
- Implementing data-driven tests to enhance versatility and coverage.
- Prioritize generating detailed and high-quality test reports for effective analysis and decision-making.
13. How would you check the effectiveness of automation testing?
We can measure the performance of automation testing through some key performance indicators, including:
- Number of completed tests
- Ease of using the automated tests
- Amount of time saved
- The number of risks decreased
- Number of errors found during tests
- Number of completed tests
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14. Are there any disadvantages to automation testing?
Some disadvantages of Automation testing are:
- The setup can be expensive to install.
- Trained and skilled individuals are required in this domain because the creation of test cases relies on the expertise of testing professionals.
15. What is a test automation framework?
A test automation framework is a collection of tools and processes that work collectively for the automated testing of software.
16. Can we do automation testing without frameworks?
Yes, we can do automation testing without frameworks. However, for large or complex projects, skipping automation testing is not a good practice.
17. What are the different types of test automation frameworks?
There are basically six types of automation frameworks, which include:
- Linear Automation Framework
- Modular-Based Testing Framework
- Library Architecture Testing Framework
- Data-Driven Framework
- Keyword-Driven Framework
- Hybrid Testing Framework
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Intermediate Automation Testing Interview Questions and Answers
18. Explain the linear automation framework.
In a linear automation framework, test scripts are created in a sequential order that includes steps such as navigation and inputs. These test scripts are then run individually, involving the capture of all test actions, including navigation and inputs.
19. What is Continuous Integration?
Continuous Integration (CI) is a development method in which developers regularly merge or integrate code into a common repository. Each integration undergoes automated build and testing processes for verification.
20. What is a library architecture testing framework?
The library architecture framework categorizes and groups similar tasks in test scripts based on their function. It organizes modular components around common goals rather than specific functions. These components are stored in a library and sorted according to their objectives. Test scripts then call this library to access different functionalities during testing.
21. What is a data-driven framework?
The main functionality of the data-driven framework is that it separates data from the script logic. This framework is particularly useful when users need to test a function or scenario with multiple sets of data while maintaining the same internal logic in the script.
22. What is a keyword-driven framework?
The keyword-driven framework extends the separation of data and logic seen in the data-driven framework. In addition to storing data externally, this framework also stores specific keywords linked to different actions separately. These keywords are referenced during test execution to test the graphical user interface (GUI).
23. What is the meaning of browser automation?
Browser automation refers to the process of making a web browser perform tasks automatically without human intervention. This includes using specialized tools or scripts to navigate websites, click buttons, fill out forms, and perform other actions on the internet, all without manual input.
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24. What do you mean by test environment?
A test environment refers to checking the quality of an application or program. It helps in detecting and rectifying any bugs that could affect the smooth operation of the application or compromise the user experience.
25. What is meant by cross-browser testing?
Cross-browser testing is making sure that web applications function correctly across different combinations of web browsers, operating systems, and devices, testing that they meet expected standards.
26. Explain the test automation pyramid.
Test automation pyramids are for helping developers deliver quality software. It helps them quickly determine if their code modifications have introduced any problems. Additionally, it assists quality assurance (QA) teams in building a powerful test suite.
27. What tools are popularly used for automation testing?
Some commonly used automation testing tools include:
28. How would you select an automation tool?
To select the appropriate testing tool we should go for these steps:
- First, consider your project requirements.
- Decide the budget for the testing
- Search the tools that fulfill the previous two requirements
- Compare the tools according to their ease of use for that project
- Select the tools that benefits you most based on those comparisons made above
29. What do you know about Selenium?
Selenium is an open-source automation testing tool that is used to test web applications across various browsers. It has components which include:
- Selenium IDE
- Selenium RC
- Selenium WebDriver
- Selenium Grid
30. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Selenium?
There are a lot of advantages of Selenium which are given below:
- It supports various operating systems
- Selenium supports the parallel execution of tests.
- Selenium can support different browsers such as Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, IE, Opera
- Selenium uses very few hardware resources.
31. What is meant by a test automation platform?
It is a tool or framework designed to automate QA efforts. This platform uses scripts to automate the entire software testing process.
32. What is UI testing?
UI or GUI testing, involves assessing the components of a tech product that users directly interact with. These test cases primarily focus on the visual elements and their responsiveness to user actions within an application.
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Advanced Automation Testing Interview Questions for Experienced
33. What modules of the automation testing framework are essential?
- Test Management Tool: These tools help teams organize test cases, track test execution, and generate reports, ensuring systematic management of the testing lifecycle.
- Bug Tracking Tool: Bug tracking tools provide a centralized platform for capturing, organizing, and prioritizing information about software bugs. This helps teams maintain a clear overview of the project’s status.
- Continuous Integration tool: These tools help in integrating the changes done in the framework during each iteration.
- Reporting tool: Reporting tools help to transform raw data into meaningful and visually attractive reports, charts, and dashboards. These tools make analysis and decision-making easier by presenting information in a clear and concise manner.
34. What are the different functions to handle multiple windows in Selenium WebDriver?
To handle multiple windows in Selenium we use the functions listed below:
It helps to switch between the windows when multiple windows are opened by Selenium
When a web page is loaded, you can manage the main window by using
driver.getWindowHandle(). This method allows you to handle the currently opened window, providing a unique identifier within the driver instance.
35. Name the functions that can be used to handle popups in Selenium.
A popup is a window that displays on the screen as a result of some activity. To handle the popups we use:
- Void dismiss(): To click the ‘Cancel’ button in the alert box.
- Void accept(): To click on the ‘OK’ button of the alert.
- String getText(): This method is for capturing the alert message.
- Void sendKeys(String stringToSend): For sending data to the alert box.
36. What is CAPTCHA and how do you automate the testing of CAPTCHA?
CAPTCHAs are the tests that are designed to block automated bots and differentiate them from humans. The testing of CAPTCHA can not be fully automated because of the dynamic nature of CAPTCHAs.
37. Why do you maintain information like URL, login, and password in a separate file and not directly in the code?
Information that can change based on authorization and environment, should be stored in a separate dedicated file. If such data is directly stored in the code, then updating it in every file will be a challenging task.
38. Is automated testing black box or white box testing?
Automated testing is mainly Black box testing. However, based on certain situations it can be categorized as white-box testing. For example, black-box testing involves testing an application without going into its low-level design or code. However, in some situations, automated test scripts may require access to the database details used in the software, introducing aspects of white-box testing.
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39. What risks can be associated with automation testing?
Although there are many advantages of test automation such as efficient and speedy tests, still there are a few risks or disadvantages associated with it. They are as follows:
- Investment cost can be more than the return on investment leading to negative ROI
- It can be hard to maintain scripts, which can cause maintainability issues.
40. What are the different phases of the automation testing lifecycle?
There are multiple steps involved in the lifecycle of automation testing which includes
- Defining the scope of test automation.
- Choosing the most suitable automation testing tool.
- Planning tests, creating an automation test strategy, and designing automated tests.
- Establishing the test environment.
- Writing and executing test scripts.
- Analyzing test results and generating reports.
41. What is meant by the Hybrid testing framework?
This framework is basically a combination of data-driven and keyword-driven frameworks. In this scenario, both the keywords and the test data are kept external to the main test script. The keywords are stored in a separate Java class file, while the test data can be managed in either a Properties file or an Excel file.
42. What is Robotic Process Automation (RPA)?
Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is a software technology designed to simplify the development, deployment, and management of software robots. These robots imitate human actions when interacting with digital systems and software.
43. What is a robot framework?
Robot framework is a generic open-source Python-based test automation framework that can be used for test automation and robotic process automation (RPA). It is used in acceptance testing and acceptance test-driven development.
44. What are the different test library APIs provided by the Robot Framework?
- Static API: These are the methods that can be directly called by their names, without having to create an object of the class. The name of the method is the same as the keyword used to invoke it, and it accepts the same arguments as the method that carries out its implementation.
- Dynamic API: In these APIs, the keyword names and their implementations are determined at runtime. The dynamic nature of these APIs enables the system to decide on the specific keywords and their relative implementations based on the runtime context or conditions.
- API Hybrid: This API provides functionalities of both Static and Dynamic APIs.
45. What do you know about the Protractor framework?
Protractor is an open-source framework that is used for automation testing. It is written using NodeJS. It provides end-to-end testing for web applications created using AngularJS.
46. Name the keyword used for fetching the URL of the current page in Selenium.
The keyword used for fetching is getcurrentURL(). This method will search for the URL of the open applications and give a string as output.
47. What do you know about QTP?
QTP(QuickTest Professional) is a testing tool designed to assist testers in automating diverse testing tasks, including functional testing, regression testing, and data-driven testing. This tool allows testers to replicate user interactions on web or desktop applications, aiding in the detection of defects within the software product.
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48. What is the best way to speed up the auto test suite?
To speed up the auto test suite you should:
- Use a Cloud-Based Testing Solution
- Opt for Continuous Integration
- Critical Functions should be automated
- Run parallel tests
- Decrease the number of tests through UI
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