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Pandas Cheat Sheet

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Python Pandas Cheat Sheet

Simple, expressive, and arguably one of the most important libraries in Python. It makes real-world Data Analysis significantly easier and faster.
Python PandasFor beginners, it’s difficult to remember all the functions and operations of Pandas libraries. To help you with your journey Data Science with Python, we have created this cheat sheet.

Pandas Cheat Sheet

The Pandas cheat sheet will help you through the basics of the Pandas library, such as working with DataFrames, Importing and Exporting conventions, Functions, Operations, and Plotting DataFrames in different formats.
Also, if you want to see an illustrated version of this topic with an example on a real-world dataset, you can refer to our Tutorial Blog on Python Pandas.
It is essential to complete our interactive Data Science course to understand Python for data science, as we have explained libraries like Pandas, Numpy, and more.

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Python Pandas Cheat Sheet

Watch this Python Pandas Tutorial for Beginners:

Advanced Pandas Cheat Sheet

Pandas Cheat Sheet
Download a Printable PDF of this Advanced Pandas Cheat Sheet

Importing the Pandas Library

We need to import the library before we get started.

import pandas as pd

Pandas Data Structure:

We have two types of data structures in Pandas, Series and DataFrame.


A series is a one-dimensional labeled array that can hold any data type.


DataFrame is a two-dimensional, potentially heterogeneous tabular data structure.
Or we can say Series is the data structure for a single column of a DataFrame.
Now let us see some examples of Series and DataFrames for better understanding.

Series: s = pd.Series([1, 2, 3, 4], index=[‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘d’])
Examples of Series and DataFramesData Frame:
data_mobile = {‘Mobile’: [‘iPhone’, ‘Samsung’, ‘Redmi’], ‘Color’: [‘Red’, ‘White’, ‘Black’], ‘Price’: [High, Medium, Low]}
df = pd.DataFrame(data_mobile, columns=[‘Mobile’, ‘Color’, ‘Price’])
Examples of DataFrames
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Importing Data Convention:

The Pandas library offers a set of reader functions that can be performed on a wide range of file formats that return a Pandas object. Here we have mentioned a list of reader functions.

pd.read_sql(query, connection_object)
A list of Reader Functions - Importing Data Convention

Exporting Data Convention:

Similarly, we have a list of write operations that are useful while writing data into a file.

df.to_sql(table_name, connection_object)
A list of Write Operations - Exporting Data Convention

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Create Test/Fake Data:

The Pandas library allows us to create fake or test data in order to test our code segments. Check out the examples given below.

df = DataFrame() – Create an empty DataFrame
pd.DataFrame(np.random.rand(4,3)) – 3 columns and 4 rows of random floats
pd.Series(new_series) – Creates a series from an iterablenew_series
Create Test or Fake Data in Pandas Library

DataFrame Retrieving – Column Data

df[‘Pet’]  – Return a single column value with the name of the column and the name is ‘Pet’
df[[‘Pet’, ‘Vehicle’]] – Return more than a single column with its name.
df.filter(regex=’TIM’) – Return the column name whose names correspond to the corresponding regular expression patterns.

DataFrame Retrieving from a Column Data

Operations: Viewing, Selecting, Sorting, and Groupby

Here we have mentioned various inbuilt functions and their operations.

View DataFrame contents:

df.head(n) – look at the first n rows of the DataFrame.
df.tail(n) – look at the last n rows of the DataFrame.

df.sample(n) – look at randomly n rows from the DataFrame.
df.nlargest(n, ‘value’) – Return and arrange the top n entries.
df.nsmallest(n, ‘value’) –
Return and arrange bottom n entries
df[df.HEIGHT > 100] –
Return the rows having ‘HEIGHT’ values > 100
df.drop_duplicates() –
Remove duplicate rows according to all column
df.shape() –
Gives the number of rows and columns.
df.info() – Information of Index, Datatype, and Memory.
df.describe() – Summary statistics for numerical columns.

View DataFrame contents


We want to select and have a look at a chunk of data from our DataFrame. There are two ways of achieving both.
First, select by position, and second, select by label.

  • Selecting by position using iloc:
df.iloc[0] – Select first row of the data frame
df.iloc[1] – Select second row of the data frame
df.iloc[-1] – Select last row of the data frame
df.iloc[:,0] – Select first column of the data frame
df.iloc[:,1] – Select second column of the data frame
Selecting by position using iloc - Selecting DataFrame contents
  • Selecting by label, using loc:
df.loc([0], [column labels]) – Select single value by row position & column labels
df.loc[‘row1′:’row3’, ‘column1′:’column3’] – Select and slicing on labels
Selecting by label, using loc - Selecting DataFrame contents


Another very simple yet useful feature offered by Pandas is the sorting of DataFrame.

df.sort_index() – Sorts by labels along an axis
df.sort_values(column1) – Sorts values by column1 in ascending order
df.sort_values(column2,ascending=False)Sorts values by column2 in descending order
df.reset_index() – Allows to reset the index back to the default.
Sorting of DataFrame


Using the groupby technique, you can create a grouping of categories. It will be helpful while applying a function to the categories. This simple yet valuable technique is used widely in data science.

df.groupby(column) – Returns a groupby object for values from one column
df.groupby([column1,column2]) – Returns a groupby object values from multiple columns
df.groupby(column1)[column2].mean() – Returns the mean of the values in column2, grouped by the values in column1
df.groupby(column1)[column2].median() – Returns the median of the values in column2, grouped by the values in column1
Grouping of DataFrame Contents

Merging Data Sets

For combining different datasets, you can use the merging technique. Parameters to be followed: {‘left’, ‘right’, ‘outer’, ‘inner’, ‘cross’}, default ‘inner’

Inner Join: pd.merge(df1, df2, how=’inner’, on=’Apple’)
Outer Join: pd.merge(df1, df2, how=’outer’, on=’Orange’)
Left Join: pd.merge(df1, df2, how=’left’, on=’Animals’)
Right Join: pd.merge(df1, df2, how=’right’, on=’Vehicles’)
Cross Join: df1.merge(df2, how=’cross’)

Merging Data Sets

Renaming Data

If we want to rename the labels in the DataFrame, then use the df.rename(index=None, columns=None, axis=None) function; the values of column names and index labels can be replaced.
df.rename(columns={‘ferrari’: ‘FERRARI’, ‘mercedes’: ‘MERCEDES’, ‘bently’: ‘BENTLY’}, inplace=True) – Rename the column name according to its values. If True then the value of the copy is ignored.
df.rename(columns={“”: “a”, “B”: “c”}) – Rename columns by mapping them.
df.rename(index={0: “london”, 1: “newyork”, 2: “berlin”}) – Rename index by mapping them.

Renaming the labels in the DataFrame

DataFrame with Duplicates

To remove duplicate data from the datasets, use duplicates(). It helps to find and eliminate the repeated labels in a DataFrame.

df.duplicated() – method used to identify duplicate rows in a DataFrame
df.index.duplicated – Remove duplicates by index value
df.drop_duplicates() – Remove duplicate rows from the DataFrame

Remove Duplicate Data from the Datasets

Reshaping Data

Python Pandas offers a technique to manipulate/reshape a DataFrame and Series in order to change how the data is represented.

pivot = df.pivot(columns=’Vehicles’, values=[‘BRAND’, ‘YEAR’]) –  Create a table with various data types.
pd.melt(df) – Collect columns into a row.
pd.pivot_table(df, values=”10″, index=[“1”, “3”], columns=[“1”]) – Pivoting with the aggregation of numeric data.

Reshape a DataFrame and Series

Concatenating Data

The concatenation function is performed when combining objects along a shared index or column.

df = pd.concat() – Allows for a full copy of the data.
df = pd.concat([df3,df1]) – Combining two DataFrame.
df = pd.concat([S3,S1]) – Combining two series.
df = pd.concat([df3,S1], axis=1 ) – Combining the DataFrame and series together.

Concatenating Data


To refine specific values from a large dataset with multiple conditions, using the filter() method helps filter the DataFrame and returns only the rows or columns that are specified.

df = df.filter(items=[‘City’, ‘Country’]) – Return ‘City’ and ‘Country’ columns from the DataFrame
df = df.filter(like=’tion’, axis=1) – Return columns that present ‘tion’ in names.
df = df.filter(regex=’Quest’) – Return the column name whose names correspond to the corresponding regular expression patterns.
df =  df.query(‘Speed>70’) – Returns the value from a row whose speed is more than 70.

Filtering the DataFrame

Working with Missing Data

Drop columns: df.drop(columns=[‘column_name’], inplace=True) – Drop rows containing null data in any column.

Filling Data: cbd[“London”].fillna(“Newyork”, inplace = True) – Filling na values in London with Newyork in DataFrame.

Replacing: df_filled.replace([2, 30], [1, 10]) – Replacing more than one value in the DataFrame.

Interpolation: df.interpolate(method =’linear’, limit_direction =’backward’, axis=0) – Interpolate the missing values filled in by columns in the forward direction using the linear method.

Working with Missing Data

Pandas – Statistical Functions

There are some special methods available in Pandas that make our calculations easier. Let’s have a look at:

Mean: df.mean() – mean of all columns
Median: df.median() – median of each column
Standard Deviation: df.std() – standard deviation of each column
Max: df.max() – highest value in each column
Min: df.min() – lowest value in each column
Count: df.count() – number of non-null values in each DataFrame column
Describe: df.describe() – Summary statistics for numerical columns

apply those methods in our Product_ReviewDataFrame

Pandas - Statistical Functions

Dropping Data

While working with a variety of datasets, there is a possibility we have to remove certain data. Using the Dropping() method, specific data can be removed from rows and columns.

Drop Columns: df.drop([‘Nike’], axis=1) – Drop the ‘Nike’ from the columns.

Drop row by index: df.drop([‘Size’], axis=0) – Drop the ‘Size’ from the row.

Dropping the multindex DataFrame: df.drop(index=’offers’, columns=’location’) – Drop the multiple labels  ‘offers’ and ‘location’ from rows and columns, respectively.

Dropping Data

Pandas Indexing

In Pandas, indexing returns specific rows and columns of data from the DataFrame.

Retrieving data frame from csv file: detail = pd.read_csv(“employee_db.csv”, index_col =”Contact”)   

Set Index can replace the existing indexes or columns from the DataFrame: detail.set_index(‘Name’) 

Multiple indexing – MultiIndex(levels=[[‘2024-01-01’, ‘2024-01-22’, ‘2024-02-10’], [‘mathew’, ‘linda’]])

Reset Index – df.reset_index(level = 3, inplace = True, col_level = 2)

Pandas Indexing


Data Visualization with Pandas is carried out in the following ways.

  • Histogram
  • Scatter Plot

Note: Call %matplotlib inline to set up plotting inside the Jupyter notebook.

Histogram: df.plot.hist()
Scatter Plot: df.plot.scatter(x=’column1′,y=’column2′)


We have covered all the basics of Pandas in this cheat sheet. If you want to start learning Pandas in-depth then check out the Python Certification Training by Intellipaat. Not only will you get to learn and implement NumPy with a step by step guidance and support from us, but you will also get to learn some other important libraries in python such as SciPy, NumPy, MatPlotLib, Scikit-learn, Pandas, Lambda function and more. You will also get 24*7 technical support to help you with any and all of your queries, from the experts in the respective technologies here at intellipaat throughout the certification period. Also, you will be provided with Basic Python interview questions asked by the experts during interviews.
For all other topics get back to the online Python Tutorial.

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About the Author

Senior Consultant Analytics & Data Science

Presenting Sahil Mattoo, a Senior Consultant Analytics & Data Science at Eli Lilly and Company is an accomplished professional with 14 years of experience across data science, analytics, and technical leadership domains, demonstrates a remarkable ability to drive business insights. Sahil holds a Post Graduate Program in Business Analytics and Business Intelligence from Great Lakes Institute of Management.