Industry experts always say that it is better to choose a language and master it to an advanced level than to keep switching between technologies and getting only to an intermediate level at most. If you’re starting with coding, we have good news for you! Python is in the market and is an extremely easy and lucrative language to start your career with. In the comprehensive list of Python-based projects put together below, we will discuss 45 Python project ideas. Here, we have covered Python projects and Python mini-projects, including Python projects for beginners (simple Python projects), intermediate-level interesting Python projects, Python Machine Learning projects, and Python open-source projects based on open-source technologies.
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Python project topics are mentioned in the following Python projects list. These project topics are categorized into three. They are beginner, intermediate, and advanced-level projects as given below:
- Arithmetic Calculator
- String Reversal Program
- Number Guessing Game
- Choice-based Games
- Guess the Word/Hangman
- Rock, Paper, Scissors
- Fibonacci Number Generator
- Days Calculator
- Sorting a List of Elements
- Binary Search
- Counting the Frequency of Each Unique Element in a List
- User Record
- Pattern Printer
You can go through Python Projects for beginners with source code for your reference.
- Calculator with a User Interface
- Tic-Tac-Toe with a Click-to-play UI
- Encryption/Decryption Application
- Resume Web Page
- A Sample E-commerce Web Page
- Time Clock
- Currency Converter
- Temperature Converter
- Blog Page Creator
- Web Browser with Python
- Memo Notes
- SQL Server-based Phone Book
- Image Resizer
- Python File Browser
- MongoDB Server-based Phone Book
- E-commerce Website with a Recommendation Engine (Machine Learning)
- Ludo Game
- Typing Speed Tester
- Object Detection Tool (Computer Vision and Machine Learning)
- Graph Creator
- Library Management System
- University Time Table Management System
- Python Selenium Tester
- Handwriting Analysis (Machine Learning)
- Intrusion Detection Using CCTV (Computer Vision and Machine Learning)
- House Price Prediction (Machine Learning)
- Music Genre Detection (Machine Learning)
- Credit Card Fraud Detection (Machine Learning)
- Sentiment Analysis (Machine Learning)
- License Plate Recognition System (Computer Vision and Machine Learning)
Let’s start with the Python projects list for beginners. These are small Python projects to take up if you are just starting your journey with your Python project ideas.
Check out Intellipaat’s highly simplistic 1-hour video on Beginner-level Python Projects:
1. Arithmetic Calculator
Clearing up the fundamental concepts of any programming language is crucial when starting with Python projects for beginners. A calculator may be the most common entry-level project for any language, but the purpose of it is to understand how the language workflow operates. By making a simple calculator, you will get a grasp of how basic Python operators work, the input/output workflow, Python data types, and the basic Python syntax. It is also recommended to manually create test cases to understand constraints and verify the functionality of your calculator application. You should definitely start with this as one of your first Python projects.
Including type conversion in your project will make it more efficient, so have a look at our blog on Python type conversion now!
2. String Reversal Program
This program will require you to take a Python string (character array) input from a user and rearrange the string in the reverse order, displaying the output to the user. The obvious first approach will be to simply reverse all the string characters, but you can further enhance this project by changing various program attributes:
- Take a sentence as the input and reverse each word in the sentence, keeping the word positions the same
- Take a sentence as the input and reverse the order in which the words appear without changing the content of the words themselves
Similarly, a lot of other variations of string manipulation can be implemented in this assignment. At the end of it, you can even create a menu-based program where the users can select what sort of string manipulation they want to perform on their given inputs.
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3. Number Guessing Game
Take this project as an introduction to using functions in Python. Take a starting number and an end number from a player and generate a random number between those two constraints. The aim of the game is for the player to guess the number that has been randomly generated. The final score of the player will be determined by the number of attempts it took the individual to get to the correct answer. The lesser the number of tries, the higher the value of the score. Upon each wrong guess, a hint will be provided to the player, stating whether they are above the number, below the number, or whether the number is a multiple of the wrongly guessed answer.
You can optionally create a function that takes in two numbers and generates a random number between them to implement your use case. Other functions can also be created for hint and comparison purposes.
4. Choice-based Games
You can put your conditional reasoning skills by doing something incredibly fun, but how? Without the use of any complex user interface or graphics engine, you can develop a game that simply prompts a player to select text-based choices to progress further in the game. You have the option to make this game as efficient as possible with multiple endings based on the choices made by the player throughout his/her game experience. To avoid unnecessary effort, you can reuse code and properly modularize and plan your plot to minimize redundancies.
To go a step further and add actual movements in your game, you can also use 2D array grids to implement game environments or maps. You can keep track of where the player is by his/her movement choices, by pinpointing the player on a particular position on the array grid. Obstacles, enemies, and other gameplay items can be placed strategically on the grid for the player to run into, or pick up, to add more dynamic elements to your game. You can also program enemy movements to make the game even more challenging.
Working with Python 2D arrays can prove to be extremely helpful when you deal with bigger industry-level programming projects, where you may have to be proficient at working with and manipulating multidimensional arrays.
Looking to get started with Python? Check out our Python Tutorial now.
5. Guess the Word/Hangman
In entry-level Python project ideas, Hangman is one of the popular games where a word is picked either by the opponent player, or by the program, and the player has the entire alphabet set available to guess letters from. The target word will be put up on display with a majority of letters missing. It is the task of the player to choose alphabets based on a hint associated with the word. If the letter is correct, all possible occurrences of that particular letter will be filled into the respective blank spaces. If the guess is incorrect, the trial count will increase, and the guessed letter will be crossed off in the available alphabet bank. The number of attempts will not be unlimited, of course. Traditionally, six wrong guesses are allowed before the player loses the game, but this number can be changed depending on how you want to create your iteration of the game.
6. Rock, Paper, Scissors
Rock, Paper, Scissors is a well-known game to use for your Python projects. There are plenty of ways to implement this game in code based on your Python knowledge. Due to the random element attached to the game, you obviously will have to use a random function to determine the hand of each player. You can start developing this game with a default CPU opponent and with randomized moves, and then, you can level up the complexity by creating an option for two human players to go against each other. Either way, the creative factor involved in the design of the game will allow you a tonne of flexibility in your approach. Be sure to add in options for retries and score tracking to enhance the overall experience.
7. Fibonacci Number Generator
The mathematical series known as the Fibonacci series has been one of the most popular coding questions in the programming community. Essentially, you start with two numbers, preferably 0 and 1, and add them to create your third Fibonacci number. From then on, you simply keep adding the sum and the second last Fibonacci term to generate the next one.
In this project, you ask for the position of the Fibonacci number required by the user and simply generate it. Once generated, you can display the desired output to the user. You can take this a step further and show the user the entire series up to that point with the mathematical working of it as well. This is one of the best Python projects to introduce yourself to the concept of the recursive function.
Preparing for Python Interviews? Check out Python Interview Questions that will help you land your dream job.
8. Days Calculator
The premise of this application is relatively straightforward. You have to create a program that takes in two dates as the input: a start date and an end date. Once the input is received, the program will proceed to calculate the number of days between those two dates and give the result to the user. You can take in the input dates in the DD-MM-YYYY format and extract the relevant parameters from the aforementioned string.
This program can prove to be a challenging task for beginners and is one of the highly recommended Python projects to clear up any fundamental doubts with regards to arrays and if-elif-else statements. The real problem-solving challenge comes in when you have to account for the difference in days in different months and when a leap year comes in.
9. Sorting a List of Elements
The optimization of a program is extremely important in development. This step helps in conserving computational resources when running applications, making them run faster without slowing down other processes on the computer. One of these optimization tasks, often asked in job interviews as well, is called ‘sorting.’ Sorting is implemented in programs in many shapes and forms and has different time complexities as well.
The aim of this program will be to take Python lists as the input and sort it in ascending or descending order if it is a numerical list or in alphabetical order if it is a character array or word list. You have to keep in mind that Python is a high-level language compared to other programming languages, and it has a lot of functionalities already built-in. It is highly recommended for your skill development to code the sorting function all by yourself and not rely on the sort function that Python provides.
Tic-Tac-Toe is a very common and easy-to-play game, played extensively on notebooks. The premise of the game is simple. It is a turn-based game, where the aim is to line up a trifecta of circles or crosses diagonally, horizontally, or vertically on a 3×3 square grid to achieve victory.
The challenge in creating this game majorly lies in familiarizing yourself with 2D array indexing and figuring out how to check diagonal line-ups. Once this is solved, the coding should become simplified.
11. Binary Search
After sorting, searching is another part of list management, which is subject to optimization routines. There are certain approaches to searching for an element in a list. There are even data structures that are based on the key-value architecture to make these searches instantaneous. One of the most efficient searching algorithms is the ‘binary search’ algorithm. The prerequisite is that the input for this searching algorithm should already be sorted. Binary searching cuts the search area in half in every loop iteration, making it time-efficient.
In this project, you need to create an application that asks the user to input a list in sorted order and a search element. If the list is not sorted, you have to, first, implement a sorting algorithm yourself and then perform the binary search on the list for the search element. Your program should display the position of the search element, if found, and should notify the user if the element is not found in the Python list.
12. Counting the Frequency of Each Unique Element in a List
After attaining familiarity with Python lists, this particular project should not be that tough. You have to take in a list as the input from a user and find out the count of each unique element in it. There is a lot of scope for time optimization here, along with a lot of flexibility in the approaches you can take to solve this problem. Remember, any method that avoids going through the entire list in every iteration is preferred here.
Check out our Sorting Concepts Tutorial on YouTube designed especially for beginners:
13. User Record
Once you have understood lists, the next step is understanding another key data structure, which is called Python dictionaries. With dictionaries, you can easily implement programs that have database functionality. Dictionaries are data structures with key-value-based NoSQL architecture and are optimal as objects, which store records that need to be looked up.
Your application should take in multiple names, contact numbers, and ages as the input and store it within a dictionary. You can optionally include third-party utilities like SQLite to store the input on a more permanent basis in databases or on JSON files if you want to increase the utility of your program.
Have a look at our blog on Python Enumerate to learn more on how to make a collection.
14. Pattern Printer
In Python projects for beginners, pattern printing programs are a great way to test nested loop designing skills. Essentially, all you have to do is print text in such a way, using loops, that they resemble symmetrical patterns.
For instance, a pattern looks like this:
Now, if a user enters the number 4, you need to print four rows of the above pattern. You can try other patterns as well and create a menu-based program that asks the users which pattern they want to print.
In this project, you will have to create a question bank with multiple choices for each question and then implement a scoring system for the players who attempt the quiz. Try to store each unique player’s score using a file or a database at the end of each quiz attempt.
16. Calculator with a User Interface
Graphical user interfaces are necessary for your applications to be used by the public. One of the easiest ways to get started with setting up GUIs is coding or creating an interface around your arithmetic calculator application, fleshed out with buttons and an output screen just like the preinstalled calculator on your device. Try to make it look as neat and user-friendly as possible. Developing Python projects with GUIs will give you a competitive edge in the industry.
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17. Tic-Tac-Toe with a Click-to-play UI
To be able to play Tic-Tac-Toe and have fun, a boring command-line terminal will not be the best option. In the project, you will create the backend logic for the Tic-Tac-Toe game and use a Python GUI library like ‘Tk’ to create the click-to-play functionality. This will make it way more fun for the users to play with friends, and moreover, it will introduce you to the architecture of the frontend and backend development integration.
18. Encryption/Decryption Application
Cryptography is very important to the security aspects of any organization. Messages and data are encrypted and sent to the intended recipients where they are decrypted and understood. First, learn some cryptographic algorithms and then design an application that converts the input text into encrypted code and decrypts the code with the proper key. Make sure to make it extra user-friendly by adding a comprehensive menu-based user interface. You can keep adding new cryptographic algorithms to this application and updating the menu size with new options for the users to select from.
19. Resume Web Page
This is one of the Python projects to take up if you are interested in the Web Development field. With Python Flask, a micro web framework, you can create your own, fully functional website. For this, all you need to develop is a single web page, which displays your resume. With some basic HTML, CSS knowledge, this can be achieved very easily.
For your first attempt, start with a basic design, and then, you can further beautify the website by changing the frontend and adding new features to your website, like databases, with the help of Python libraries. Once you get started with this project, it will become an interesting task to keep updating it with every new ounce of insight gained from the technology. Make sure to use a version control software like Git to organize and keep track of your project files. Using Git will also ensure that you can always keep the working source code backed up in the main project branch.
20. A Sample E-commerce Web Page
A secondary project that will help you enrich your resume in today’s highly competitive product-based sector is building an e-commerce website. This is among the most relevant Python project ideas of the day. Displaying e-commerce content on your portfolio instantly gives a sense of relatability to your potential employer if you are applying for the job role of a web developer for a company that sells something online. If you develop such a project from the ground up, you can easily explain the features you implemented and the exact purpose of each one of them. This can boost your chances of getting hired immensely.
21. Digital Clock
Here, you need to implement a UI-based clock with the help of Python frontend libraries to make the clock design mimic an actual digital clock. Create an executable so that the clock can be activated by launching the executable file. The clock time should change for every second that passes.
22. Currency Converter
In this Python project, you will create an application that converts the currency amount of the source country to that of the target country. In the user interface, a user should be able to select the source and target countries, which should be listed in drop-down menus. The user should also be able to enter the amount in the source tab that he/she needs to see as converted. Here, you may have to research the third-party libraries that will fetch you the current currency exchange rates to make your application adapt to the latest, whenever it is launched.
23. Temperature Converter
There are predefined formulae to implement the mathematical aspect of temperature conversion. You will not need any third-party application to fetch any conversion criteria. Read up on Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin to-and-fro conversion method and code the formulae in a convenient UI-based application.
24. Blog Page Creator
Here, you will have to create a web application that has the options of Add blog, Modify blog, and Delete blog to upload blog posts on a website with a click of a button, but do make sure to use Python backend frameworks for the server. You can add this to your list of Python project ideas and excel in your career.
25. Web Browser with Python
Using Python and PyQt, you can create an application, which has the basic functionality of a web browser. In this app, a user should be able to type in web addresses in the URL bar. Optionally, you can create ‘back’ and ‘forward’ buttons to navigate more smoothly, and additionally, you can implement other buttons like ‘refresh,’ etc.
Including dates in your projects will make it more immersive, learn more about it from our blog on Python Dates.
26. Memo Notes
Similar to sticky notes, you can attempt to implement a note-making application that, once created, remains on your desktop screen. You can write memos in it so that you are reminded of your pending tasks whenever you get back to your workstation. You can also add time expiration periods to your notes so that they are automatically deleted after a certain period of time. These memo notes can also be integrated with a Python-based alarm clock feature that produces a beep sound once the memos reach their expiration time.
27. SQL Server-based Phone Book
Instead of using libraries like SQLite, you can install an actual MySQL server onto your development computer and implement a phone book application, which stores user data through a UI. This will help clear up concepts related to server and database integration, which are integral to backend Web Development. This phone book data should be accessible, modifiable, deletable, and searchable.
28. Image Resizer
In this Python project, you will build up an application where a user can resize an image file by changing its dimensions to the target parameters. An introduction to image processing is definitely required for accomplishing this particular project. It can also turn out to be an excellent resume builder when attempted successfully.
29. Python File Browser
To learn and gather insights into operating system/file system integration with Python, you will have to develop a file browser similar to Windows Explorer by integrating your application with your computer’s file system. In your app, be sure to add an ‘open’ button in the user interface to allow the user to open any file that is present on the browser.
30. MongoDB Server-based Phone Book
To get an idea of working with NoSQL databases, in this Python project, you can make a phone book application that stores user data inside a MongoDB database. This can prove to be helpful especially when you have to add new fields in the user database dynamically.
31. E-commerce Website with a Recommendation Engine (Machine Learning)
The key to the success of any e-commerce business is a good user interface. To achieve a greater user experience, from a marketing perspective, targeted advertising is the central success criteria. This means that if your e-commerce web application can recommend the products that a customer is likely to buy, based on the customer’s previous transactional activity, location, gender, and age, you are most likely to boost your business by a significant percentage.
This recommendation engine is achieved through Machine Learning. ML is an advanced and deep topic, so if you’re starting with it, you can use simpler ML algorithms with prebuilt Python libraries and achieve your use case. In today’s day and age, ML technologies are extremely relevant and account for the highest-paying tech jobs in the world. Due to the seamless integration that Python has with ML libraries, it is the language to choose if you are coding any type of recommendation engine.
Are you looking to dwell on Python project ideas based on Machine Learning? Do check out this Machine Learning Tutorial blog by Intellipaat to clear up your fundamentals regarding Machine Learning.
32. Ludo Game
In this advanced-level Python project, you need to create a 4-player Ludo game with a neat interface. Integrating data structures with the frontend is the primary challenge involved in the development of this game. You can use a GUI library that suits your aesthetic needs for the look and feel of the game.
33. Typing Speed Tester
In this project, you will have to create an application that displays a randomly generated or pre-selected paragraph for a user, and the task of the user is to type in the same onto the text field as fast as possible. Every spelling error deducts points from the total speed score of the user. This application can be used recreationally to compare typing speeds among friends. Moreover, users can use this application to practice and increase their typing speed and typing accuracy.
34. Object Detection Tool (Computer Vision and Machine Learning)
To come up with something creative in your Python project ideas, computer vision, combined with Machine Learning, is a great option, and also, the combination is buying more attention today. This project combines image processing with Machine Learning to detect objects, which the Machine Learning model has been trained on, in images or videos. For instance, upon receiving an input from a live camera feed, or upon receiving a still image as the input, the application should be able to classify the objects within the input into specific categories.
The number of categories depends entirely on how many you want. Just keep in mind that whatever objects you pick as the subject for your ML training, you will require a large dataset of the images of those objects to train your algorithm correctly. To refine your algorithm, even more, you can further train your model on objects that are not your target objects so that your application has a reference point. You can pick this as one of your first computer vision-based Python projects based on Machine Learning.
To deeply understand the concepts of Machine Learning, check out this ML tutorial by Intellipaat:
35. Graph Creator
Here, you need to create an application that can help a layman create his own data visualizations with simple inputs. There should be click-and-drag features, along with the functionality to import the user’s own datasets. Working on this project will help you understand more about the Python Matplotlib library.
36. Library Management System
If you are currently in university or college, chances are that there is a library on your campus grounds. Most colleges with huge book collections might already have implemented a library management application, but if you are looking for a topic for any of your semester projects, you can opt for this one. If you build something that can directly benefit your college, you are likely to fetch a high grade, and you will learn a lot about the subject matter at hand as well. Get in touch with your library and begin planning this out if you do decide to opt for it. This is one of the best Python project ideas for undergraduate students.
37. University Time Table Management System
One of the more complex projects that you can build is a university timetable management system. In this project, you need to check out classroom vacancy, faculty, and time slot availability. Make sure that the courses for all are assigned and try to create an application that helps build a balanced timetable. The primary point of creating such a system is to make it easy to make and modify timetables without having to manually check for clashes and conflicts.
Make your code more comprehensive by including comments in it. Learn more about it from our blog on Python comments now!
38. Python Selenium Tester
In this project, you have to create an application that helps test the functionality of a website with the help of the Selenium libraries for Python. For people looking to get into software testing, this is among the best Python project ideas.
39. Handwriting Analysis (Machine Learning)
This is another advanced Python project that uses ML models. Here, you will make an application that interprets handwriting using strategically trained Machine Learning models and image processing. The recommended libraries that you can choose for this project are TensorFlow and Keras.
40. Intrusion Detection Using CCTV (Computer Vision and Machine Learning)
In this project, you need to use live feeds from CCTV cameras in conjunction with your Python application to detect any suspicious activity around your house, neighbourhood, or any other relevant area. The standard way to go about detecting intruders is to monitor movement on the camera, but this approach can give a lot of false positives. The better way is to use Machine Learning, combined with computer vision, to verify whether any movement on the camera is suspicious or not.
41. House Price Prediction (Machine Learning)
You can use Predictive Analytics with Machine Learning to take in house pricing records as the input and predict the macro and micro term price changes with time. Here, in this project, you need to convert this into an application with a GUI for convenient, user-friendly utility, along with an option to tweak variables to see how it affects the pricing.
42. Music Genre Detection (Machine Learning)
In this advanced project, you can make use of Machine Learning to classify waveform patterns into musical genres through image/graph analysis.
43. Credit Card Fraud Detection (Machine Learning)
Here, you will have to create a two-fold credit card verification system, which checks for anomalies on the surface level and then puts the source information through comprehensive Machine Learning algorithms to determine if statistically any inconsistencies exist or not.
44. Sentiment Analysis (Machine Learning)
If you are looking to dwell on more data-oriented Python project ideas, you can opt for a sentiment analysis project. In this project, you can use a variety of parameters to create the ideal model, which determines the sentiment of an individual. Texts, including messages, tweets, posts, and emails, can be used to determine the current emotional status of a person. There are sentiment score datasets for words and phrases. These scores can be matched with the text to determine the satisfaction or dissatisfaction level of that individual.
45. License Plate Recognition System (Computer Vision and Machine Learning)
Similar to the concept of handwriting analysis, you can use images or video feeds transmitted by CCTV cameras to automatically register the license plates of vehicles that pass through text recognition. This can especially be useful in gated communities, campuses, and security checkpoints. Among computer vision-based Python project ideas, having this on your portfolio can help you enhance your resume greatly.
For additional advanced Python projects ideas, check out Intellipaat’s Python Chatbot Tutorial:
With that, we have reached the end of our list here. Python may be an easy language to get into, but the skill ceiling is quite high with respect to what can be accomplished with it. If you are interested in Python and you are looking to work on such Python project ideas, alongside topics in Machine Learning, you can opt for Intellipaat’s Data Science Course, which covers Python and advanced ML topics with Python.
Intellipaat wishes you the best of luck in your coding journey!