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What is Wrapper Class in Salesforce?
A wrapper class is nothing but a collection of different Salesforce data types. In Salesforce, you can combine multiple data types and utilize them for various purposes. For example, there is a wrapper class that can access the account records and displays an in-page block table. You have an option of a checkbox, and you can associate multiple serial numbers to display the number of records. So, there can be multiple records and respective serial numbers.
When elucidating the architecture of Salesforce, you can see that it is somewhat similar to a database wherein the records are defined as rows, the fields are determined as columns, and the objects are defined as tables. Having different collections of classes assigned to facilitate a successful development process, Salesforce possesses the MVC architecture.
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Wrapper Class in Salesforce as a Solution
What is wrapper class in Salesforce? A wrapper class is used mainly to wrap data collected from the present objects to a new object. A sObject is defined as a distinct type that doesn’t include a database or any relevant field; it doesn’t have any API page but is definitely a valid object.
In other orders, a wrapper class is a container class; it is a data structure and an abstract data type that contains various objects and their members together. A wrapper class is also called a custom object which is determined by a developer with a particular set of properties, e.g., a custom class in Salesforce contains fields and each field has a definite data type. Similarly, a wrapper class is also a custom class that has various properties and data types, which can be determined according to the requirement. If you want to wrap various data objects, there is no better option than wrapper classes in Salesforce.
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Wrapper Class Use Case in LWC
Following is a wrapper class use case in LWC:
- Display the list of Open Cases in the form of DataTable
- Ensure that the user is given the ability to select multiple cases at a time
- Create a “Close Selected Cases” button.
- The ‘Close Selected Cases’ button should close all the selected cases once clicked.
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Advantages of a Wrapper Class in Salesforce
- When considering the JSON structure, the wrapper class structure is comparable to the data visualization technique on a particular web page.
- There isn’t any requirement for passing the map structure for browsing elements or for managing the relationship between objects.
- If you want to pass a sObject, there isn’t any penalty for the same, and it can also be extendable to the class constructors.
- Data can be organized perfectly when it is nested.
A wrapper class and a container class can be kept together, but it is better if they are stored separately. When they are kept independently, it is easy for them to be maintained and reused whenever required, thus preventing code duplication.
Therefore, it is clear enough that a wrapper class is used to construct a new object within the Apex code which can consolidate a set of fields that are most importantly required at the runtime or various fields from different objects. This provides extra control and flexibility over the data objects to view and control the elements.
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Wrapper Class as an Everyday Tool in Salesforce
Let’s now talk about why the wrapper class is described as an everyday Salesforce tool. By saying that it means, all Salesforce Developers use wrapper classes, along with other Salesforce tools, on a daily basis. This is normal in Visualforce wherein some of the queries are performed on the data before presenting it to the user.
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A few activities included are as follows:
- Connecting values concurrently for various fields of an object using a mapping table
- Presenting various threads of data mutually in a single list
- Enhancing a data object by extracting the data from another object
The most suitable solution for all these concerns is wrapper classes. Every wrapper class can have different specifications as designed, which is based on its user terms, but the comprehensive structure is more manageable for all of the wrapper classes.
A wrapper class doesn’t have an inner class determined by default, yet the practice of having an inner class can be more efficient and simple in Salesforce. A wrapper class is used similarly as unions, structures, or algebraic types for any other class; the method is limited with a bounded introspection and with possible dynamism in Apex.
In order to construct any powerful wrapper class, you should use properly designed properties in your wrapper class rather than opting for a highly complex rendering. Also, have in mind that there is a huge requirement for enforcing support manually so that the data restructuring can come with some particular obligation to enforce all the permissions properly.
The MVC (Model View Controller) architecture in Salesforce is a software pattern that separates the representation of information from the user’s interaction with it. Salesforce UI has a Model-View-Controller (MVC) model, and here salesforce metadata is stored to view it as XML later.
The MVC architecture contains the following three modules:
- Model (Database Layer) – The schema and data that Salesforce uses to represent the system completely. In Salesforce, the sObjects can be considered to be the model as every entity in Salesforce is mapped to some sObject. sObjects are objects that can be stored in the Force.com platform database
- View (UI Layer) – It is how the schema and data are represented. Visualforce is used to present the data to the users.
- Controller (Business Logic Layer) – A controller is basically an Apex Class extended to the controller; data is relinquished to accessible models first to view the elements.
Developers are limited to a data structure of a particular object type while the relationship between these data structures is necessary.
In order to handle various objects collectively, you will need only a single object for an individual field. This condition might be confusing in the beginning, but some practice will help you get through this.
There are two types of controllers: standard controllers and custom controllers. Controllers are responsible for modeling and viewing objects, components, and pages in Salesforce.
As can be seen from the image above, a single contact can have many orders wherein each order can have various order lines. This kind of nested structure is exemplified through a JSON or NoSQL database.
Learn about the difference between Record Types and Page Layouts in Salesforce in our blog on Record Types vs Page Layouts.
A wrapper class is a proven enhancement of growth for Salesforce Developers with its wider range of solutions, along with its functionalities. It is used everywhere, and Salesforce Developers have realized its benefits too.
Whenever you want to compare custom objects or you need to add more functionalities, you can try using wrapper classes in your own way. You can also add many fields within an object whenever required and maximize the usability of an application. With this, we come to the end of this section on ‘What is wrapper class in Salesforce?’
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