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Introduction to Python

As per Stack Overflow, Python is one among the fastest growing programming languages in the world. Forbes says that Python saw the 7th largest demand increase in past years. Due to this, there will be an acute shortage of skilled and certified Python professionals. The job opportunities for Python have also increased tremendously. According to indeed.com, the average annual salary of a Python developer in the US is $123,000.

Python is one of the most popular programming languages of the 21st century. It is a general-purpose language and has been around for over 20 years. One of the biggest reason why Python is becoming so popular is that Python has an elegant and simple English like syntax which makes it fairly easy to learn. With it’s gentle and gradual learning curve, Python is considered as the best introductory languages programming language.

Watch this Python Video for Beginners

Here we have the list of topics if you want to jump right into a specific one:

Why Python?

  • When it comes to automating predictive model, Python is the first choice for data scientists
  • Python provides some of the awesome and robust libraries for big data, Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning.
  • For deploying machine learning models in production, Data Scientist prefers Python over R.
  • It is easy to integrate python with big data frameworks such as Spark and Hadoop.
  • Python has huge online community support.

What can Python do?

Python is a general-purpose language, which means that it can be used to write software applications in a variety of domains without being restricted to a particular domain. This feature sets Python apart from domain-specific languages. Being a general-purpose language, Python can do a number of interesting things. Some of them are listed below:

      • Python can be used to write an application using Tkinter which use graphics rather than text to interact with the users.
      • Python can be used to create games as well, using modules of Python such as Pygame or Kivy.
      • Python can also automate boring stuff such as sending emails and uploading status on a Facebook account and more
      • Python can also be used to experiment with computer vision using its openCV library. It is particularly used in robotics to enable the robots to see and avoid obstacles while moving.
      • Drawing complex graphs and visualizing the data? Python can do that too, using its matplotlib and similar libraries.
      • Being one of the top choices for data analysis, Python can also mine Twitter Data. How convenient is that? especially if we consider the fact that in today’s world we literally have hordes of data.

Python 2 vs. Python 3

Python 2 v/s Python 3

Since the release of the new version of Python, that is Python 3, there has been a bit of a debate in the coding community about which python version is better. Whether python 3 is better than python 2 or not is a rather subjective question and the selection between the two eventually comes down to the personal preference but one must know how Python 2 and Python 3 are different. Python 3 is a fundamentally different version from Python 2.

Let’s see all the key differences between Python 2 and Python 3

Basis of the difference Python 2 Python 3
Print In Python 2, we treat print as a statement rather than a function and hence there is no need to put the text inside parentheses. In Python 3, we explicitly treat print as a function, which means the text you want to print has to be inside the parentheses or you will get a syntax error.
Integer division In Python 2, the interpreter treats the numbers that we type without any decimal points as integer which might lead to unexpected outcomes of certain mathematical operations. e.g., 5/2 in Python 2 will give the result as 2 instead of 2.5. To get the result as 2.5, we will have to write 5.0/2.0 In Python 3, the interpreter automatically identifies what should be the data type on the basis of the type of value. So the result of 5/2 in Python 3 is by default calculated as 2.5 which is way more convenient than Python 2.
Input In Python 2, we use raw_input() function to take inputs from users. This function only returns the string representing the user’s input which we have to convert into the desired datatype. In Python 3, input() method is used to take the input from the user. The type of input is also automatically interpreted in Python 3.
String Type The implicit string type in Python 2 is ASCII The implicit string type in Python 3 is Unicode

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Beginner Tips for Learning Python Programming Online

While learning as a beginner programmer, you should follow these tips which will help you to deal with the new concepts:

Tip #1: Practice your code every day

It is important to have consistency while learning any new programming language. It is important that you should make a commitment to write code every day. As it will play with your muscle memory which is a very important part in programming. Increase you level of coding gradually but never stop playing around with the basic coding part. You may end up learning something new even about te basics.

This will also help you to keep a good grasp of basics such as:
Print the type of the element:

>>> a = “this is a string”
>>> type(a)
>>> <class ‘str’> #output

Use docstring to add multi line descriptive descriptions in your code:

>>>def printOutput( str):
>>>“’This function will print the passed string’”
>>>print (str)
>>>return;

Import libraries:

>>> import sklearn
>>> import pandas as pd
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

Performs operations and play around with them:

>>> a = ‘Intellipaat’
>>> a.upper()
>>> ‘INTELLIPAAT’

The list does not end here, there are plenty other basic things that you can practice.

Tip #2: Use Interactive Python shell

Whether you are new Python data structures (dictionaries, lists, strings etc.), or you are debugging an application, the best learning tools is an interactive Python shell.

To use the interactive Python shell, first you should install Python on your computer. The step-by-step installation procedure of python you can learn in this tutorial. To activate and use the interactive Python shell, simply open the terminal on your system and run python or python3 depending on your version of installation. Now that you know shell is open, you can write code.

Tip #3: Debug your code

Hitting a bug is normal when you start writing a complex program. Don’t get frustrated, it happens with everyone! Instead, grip these moments as a pride and think of yourself as a bug bounty hunter. Debugging your own code will help you learn even more.

It is important to have a methodological approach while debugging the code, which will help you to find where your code is breaking down. Going through your code step by step in its executable order and make sure each part of code works is a great way you want it to do.

Tip #4: Try to Build Some Small Projects

Always try to build a small project for each concept. This will help you build confident of writing Python program, as well as this will help you to develop the muscle memory. Once you have a solid foundation on basic data structures (dictionaries, strings, sets, lists), object-oriented programming, and writing classes. This will also teach you the most of your programming concepts. For the best of career growth, check out Python training course to get certified. Also, Intellipaat is providing a free Python interview questions and answers, which will help to excel your career.

Tip #5: Contribute to open source

Python is an open source language which means that it’s source code is available for the public to download, use and modify. Anyone can collaborate and be an active member of Python community. You have access to code written and produced by big companies. Working with these codes will be a very valueable learning experience. You can even reach out to other community members whenever you hit a bump in your coding

Table of Content

What is Python?

What is Python?

Python is a high-level, general-purpose programming language with an elegant syntax that allows programmers to focus more on problem-solving rather than syntax errors. One of the primary goals of Python’s Developers is keeping it fun to use. Python has become a big buzz in the field of modern Software Development, Infrastructure Management and especially in Data Science and Read More

Python Version

Python Version History

Python was developed at a time when many other dynamics and open-source programming languages like Tcl, Perl, Ruby etc. were also being actively developed and gaining popularity. The below-given image depicts the python logo then vs Python logo now. Version 1: Python 1.0 In January 1994, the first version of Python 1.0 was released. This python version Read More

How to Download and Install Python?

Python Installation & Setup Guide

To get started working with Python 3, first of all you will need to have access to the Python interpreter. There are numerous ways to accomplish this: Either we can directly obtain it from the Python Software Foundation website at python.org. Or in operating systems like Linux, there will be a package manager which can Read More

Python Syntax

Python Coding with Examples

Python was specifically designed to be a highly readable language. It's ease of use and neat syntax have made it one of the most used language among freshers as well as experts. Python has English like syntax which makes it much easier to write, read and understand a python script as compared to a similar script Read More

Python Comments

Writing Comments in Python Programming

Comments in any Programming language are used to increase the readability of the code. Similarly, in Python, when the program starts getting complicated, one of the best ways to maintain the readability of the code is to use comments. It is considered good practice to include documentations and notes in your code since it makes Read More

Python Datatypes

Python Datatypes overview

One of the most crucial part of learning any programming language is to understand how the data is stored and manipulated in that language. Python users are often inclined towards python because of its ease of use and various number of versatile features it provides. One of those features is dynamic typing. In python, unlike statically typed Read More

Python Variables

What is a variable in Python

A variable is a memory address that can change and when memory address cannot change then that variable is known as constant. Variable is a name of the memory location where data is stored. Once a variable is stored then space is allocated in memory. It defines a variable using a combination of numbers, Read More

Python Numbers

Numbers Datatype in Python

In Python, number datatype is used to store numeric values. Numbers in Python are immutable data type. Being an immutable datatype means that if we change the value of an already allocated number datatype then that would result in newly allocated object. In this module we will delve deeper into number datatype. Following is the list Read More

Python Strings

String Datatype in Python and their formats

Python string is an ordered collection of characters which is used to represent and store the text-based information. Strings are stored as individual characters in a contiguous memory location. It can be accessed from both the directions in forward and backward. Characters are nothing but symbols. Python Strings are immutable Datatypes in Python, Read More

Python Lists

Lists Datatype in Python

Lists are Python’s most flexible ordered collection object type.  It can also be referred to as a sequence that is an ordered collection of objects that can host object of any type, numbers, letters, strings and nested lists as well. It is one of the most used and versatile Python datatypes. In this module we will Read More

Python Tuple

Tuple Datatype in Python

Tuple datatype in Python is collection of various immutable Python objects separated by commas. Tuples are much similar to Lists in Python but they are syntactically different, meaning that, in lists we use square brackets while in Tuple we use parenthesis. In this module, we will learn all about Tuple datatype in order to get started Read More

Python Sets

Sets Datatype in Python

Set datatype in Python is mutable, iterable and does not have any duplicate elements. It is an unordered collection of elements which means that a set is a collection that stores elements of different data types. Remember that, set doesn’t index them in a particular order. Let us look at some of the properties of set in Read More

Python Dictionary

Dictionary Datatype in Python

Python dictionary is yet another unordered collection of elements. The difference between Python Dictionary and other unordered datatype in Python such as Sets lies in the fact that unlike Sets, Dictionary contains key and values rather than just an element. Like lists, Python Dictionaries can also be changed and modified but unlike lists, the values in Read More

Python Operators

Operators in Python

In Python we have a set of special symbols that perform various kinds of operations such as logical operations, mathematical operations and more. These symbols are called Python operators. For every symbol or operator there is a unique kind of operation. The values on which the operators perform their respective operations are known as operands. In this Read More

Type conversion in Python

Type Conversion in Python with Example

The process of converting a datatype into another datatype is known as Type conversion. There are mainly two types of type conversions in Python, namely, implicit type conversion and explicit type conversion. In this module, we will go through the following topics, in case you want to jump to a specific one. Implicit Type Read More

Python If, Else Statements

Control Flow Statements - If, Else

Like other programming languages, there are some control flow statements in Python as well. Control flow refers to the order in which the program should be executed. Generally, the control flow of a program runs from top to bottom. However, the control flow statements break the general top to bottom order of execution by Read More

Python While Loops

Control Flow Statements - Python While Loop

As discussed in the previous module, we know that Python, like other programming languages consists of some control flow statements. One of the control flow statements that we have already studied about in previous module is the “if else statements”. Another one of the control flow statements are loops. Loops are used when Read More

Python For Loops

Control Flow Statements - For Loop

For loops in Python, just like any other language are used to repeat a block of code for a fixed number of times. For loop is yet another control flow statement since the control of the program is continuously transferred to the beginning of the for loop to execute the body of for loop Read More

Python Functions

Functions in Python

Functions are used to group together a certain number of related instructions. These are reusable block of codes written to carry out a specific task. A function might or might not require inputs. Functions are only executed when they are specifically called. Depending on the task a function is supposed to carry out, a function might or Read More

Python Lambda Function

Lambda Function or Anonymous Function in Python

As discussed in the previous module, we know that there are three types of functions in Python. One of them is an anonymous function. Anonymous functions in python are the functions without a name. Now to define a normal function, we use the keyword def. Similarly, to define an anonymous function we use Read More

Python Built-in Functions

Python Built-in Functions

Back in Python functions module, we learned that there are three types of functions in Python, namely, user-defined functions, lambda functions, and built-in functions. In this module, we will learn all that we need to know about Python built-in functions to get started it. So, without any further ado, let’s get started. Python interpreter has various pre-defined Read More

Python Arrays

Arrays in Python

An array is a data structure that can contain or hold a fixed number of elements that are of the same datatype. An array is composed of an element and an index. Index in an array is the location where the element resides. All elements have their respective indices. Index of an array always starts with 0. Read More

Python Classes and Objects

Classes and Objects in Python

Python is an object-oriented language and almost every entity in Python is an object. Which means that programmers extensively use classes and objects when coding in Python. Objects in Python are basically an encapsulation of variables and functions, that they get from classes. In this module you will learn each and every aspect of classes Read More

Python Modules

Modules in Python

When we write a program in Python interpreter or Python shell and then exit from the shell, all the definitions that we had included in our program get lost. We can't use those definitions again. While practicing and learning Python, it may not seem as much of a problem, but in certain cases, for example, while working Read More

Python Dates

Datetime module in Python

In Python, there is a module which is comprised of various functions to deal, manipulate and work with dates and date objects. This module is known as Python datetime module. We can simply start working with dates by importing this module and using the functions and classes it provides. In this module we will learn about Read More

Python JSON

Json in Python

JSON is an acronym for JavaScript Object Notation. Python has a built-in package named json to support JSON programming in Python. JSON is basically used for encoding and decoding data. The process of encoding the JSON data is referred to as serialization as it involves converting data into a series of bytes that can be stored and Read More

Python RegEx

Regular Expressions in Python

Python Regular Expressions are patterns that permit you to “match” various string values in a variety of ways. The module re provides regular expressions in Python. A pattern is simply one or more characters that represent a set of possible match characters. In regular expression matching, you use a character (or set of characters) to represent Read More

Python PIP

PIP in Python

Pip is a python package management system which can also be used to install various software written in Python and  Python modules and their respective dependencies. In this module, we will learn about pip and cover the following topics. Checking if PIP is installed Installing PIP Downloading a Package using PIP Removing a package using PIP Listing Read More

Python File Handling

Python File I/O

Python file handling operations also known as Python I/O deals with two types of files. They are: Text Files Binary Even though the two file types may look the same on the surface they encode data differently. A text file is structured as a sequence of lines. And each line of the text file consists of a Read More

Python Exception Handling

Exception Handling

It is obvious for a developer to encounter a few errors or mistakes in their code file. But what if developers could minimize their mistakes or error, wouldn’t it be great? Python offers Exception handling methods, which helps developers deal with potential errors and mistakes. In this tutorial we will be discussing the below-given topics: What is an Read More

Python Enumerate Function

What is Enumerate?

Before we jump into the understanding of enumerate function in Python programming language, let us unfold the chapter by finding out what enumerate is, what it means to enumerate something. The term enumerate is commonly used in mathematics and computer science. Well, enumerating is nothing but ordered listing of all the elements in a collection. Now that Read More

Python Queue

Python Queue 

Python Queue is an important concept in Data Structure. Queues are nothing but data item containers. With the help of queues, you can control the flow of your tasks. Say, you are manipulating data that are collected from a website and then writing the manipulated data into a .txt file. Now imagine if you have not collected the Read More

NumPy Tutorial – Learn Python NumPy from Experts

Python NumPy for Beginners

One of the robust and most commonly used Python library is NumPy. The Python Library is a collection of script modules which are accessible to a Python program. It helps to simplify the programming process and it also removes the need to rewrite commonly used commands again and again. NumPy stands for Numerical Python which provides Read More

SciPy Tutorial

Python SciPy: Learn with Example

Scientists and researchers are likely to gather enormous amount of information and data that are scientific and technical, from their exploration, experimentation and analysis. Dealing with such huge amount of data becomes a hindrance to them. That is, calculation and computing with large data manually is not an easy task. Hence, we make use of Read More

Scikit Learn Tutorial

Introduction to Scikit-Learn

Scikit-Learn is a free machine learning library for python. It's a very useful tool for data mining and data analysis and can be used for personal as well as commercial use. Scikit-Learn lets users perform various machine learning tasks and provides the means to implement machine learning in python. This module is designed keeping in mind that Read More

Python Pandas Tutorial

Introduction to Pandas

Pandas is a Python library which is simple yet powerful tool for Data Analysis. Pandas is one of the most widely used Python packages. This package is comprising of many data structures and tools for effective Data Manipulation and analysis.Python with Pandas is used everywhere including Commercial, Academic, Economics, Finance, Analytics, Statistics, etc. And if you are going Read More

Python Matplotlib Tutorial

Learn how to plot with Matplotlib

Handling of data is a skillful art. In the trending technological world there is massive amount of data that is being consumed as well as wasted. But, handling these data in a rather effective manner, becomes the main goal of data science. We can make use of various programming languages to deal with the Read More

Python Cheat Sheet Basics

Python Basics Cheat Sheet

Are you finding difficult in remembering all the syntax that you need to work with Python for Data Science? Guys, don’t worry if you are a beginner and have no idea about how Python works, this Python for Data Science cheat sheet will give you a quick reference of the basics that you must know to Read More

Data Structures with Python Cheat Sheet

Introduction:

Data Structure is a collection of data types and set of rules with a format of organizing, managing and storage which can be used for efficient accessing and modification. Data structures are used in every field for storing and organizing data in the computer. This Python Data Structure cheat sheet will help you understand what Data Structure is and Read More

Numpy Cheat Sheet

Python NumPy Cheat Sheet

Whether you are a professional and have been working with Python for quite some time or you are a fresher and have just started using python, you must have heard of NumPy, a python library for numerical operations. It is extensively used but regardless of how popular it is, wouldn’t you agree that it’s practically not possible Read More

Scikit-Learn Cheat Sheet

Python Scikit-Learn Cheat Sheet

If you are finding it hard to remember all the different commands to perform different operations in Scikit Learn then don’t worry, you are not alone, it happens more often than you would think. At Intellipaat, we make sure that our learners get the best out of our e-learning services and that is exactly why we Read More

Pandas Cheat Sheet

Python Pandas Cheat Sheet

Simple, expressive and arguably one of the most important libraries in Python, not only does it make real-world Data Analysis significantly easier but provides an optimized feature of being significantly fast. It is common that for those who just started Data Science journey with Python and Pandas library might find it overwhelming to remember all those functions Read More

Python List Comprehension

Python List Comprehension

Previously in this Python Tutorial, we have already learned what Python Lists are and how to use them. We also understood Python list comprehensions in brief. In this section, we will go in the depths of Python List comprehension and understand why we need it. In case you want to jump to a specific topic in this Read More

Python Web Scraping Tutorial

Web Scraping

Web scraping has been around for a while now, but it has become very popular in the past decade. Python has made web scraping very easy. With the help of Python, extracting data from a web page can be done automatically. In this module, we will discuss web scraping from the scratch. Also, this tutorial will be guiding Read More

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"2 Responses on Python Tutorial – Learn Python 3 Programming from Expert"

  1. Dev says:

    Excellent tutorial which is highly appreciated. Thanks!!!! I have learned a lot from your tutorials.

  2. Kartik says:

    Thanking you for your time sharing your intelligence with such kind respect for new learners. Its a good guide for python beginners.

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